Advertisement

Organic molecules in space

  • Gisbert Winnewisser
  • Eric Herbst
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 139)

Abstract

The chemistry of interstellar molecular clouds is reviewed. Emphasis has been given to recent observational and theoretical advances. At present approximately 70 identified molecular species have been detected in interstellar molecular clouds and circumstellar shells. Identification of the newly detected species rests mainly on the exacting test between interstellar and laboratory spectra. A large number of unidentified interstellar lines indicates the wide chemical variety in synthesizing molecules in a low temperature, low density environment. Although most of the interstellar molecules are organic, (presently 53) some of the most abundant interstellar molecules are inorganic, such as H2, H2O, NH3. The recent detection of the H2D+ molecular ion is astro-chemically important, since the existence of the primary ion H 3 + has been postulated by the ion-molecule gas phase reaction scheme. Amongst the newly detected molecules are additional carbon chain molecules and the first two ring molecules SiCC and C3H2.

Recent theoretical gas phase model calculations leading to the observed molecular complexity are discussed together with a critical evaluation of gas phse versus grain syntheses of interstellar molecules. Finally the question of how large interstellar molecules can be is addressed, seen in the light of chemical evolution.

Keywords

Rate Coefficient Complex Molecule Interstellar Medium Molecular Cloud Column Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

8 References

  1. Aannestad, P.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 25, 223 (1973)Google Scholar
  2. Adams, N. G., Smith, D.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 79, 563 (1981)Google Scholar
  3. Adams, N. G., Smith, D., Clary, D. C.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 296, L31 (1985)Google Scholar
  4. Allamandola, L. J., Tielens, A. G. G. M., Barker, J. R.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 290, L25 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. Allen, M., Robinson, G. W.: Astrophys. J. 195, 81 (1975)Google Scholar
  6. Allen, M., Robinson, G. W.: ibid. 207, 745 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. Allen, M., Robinson, G. W.: ibid. 212, 396 (1977)Google Scholar
  8. Anicich, V. G., Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Jet Propulsion Laboratory preprint (1984)Google Scholar
  9. Barlow, S. E., Dunn, G. H., Schauer, M.: Phys. Rev. Letters 52, 902 (1984)Google Scholar
  10. Bass, L. M., Cates, R. D., Jarrold, M. F., Kirchner, N. J., Bowers, M. T.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 105, 7024 (1983)Google Scholar
  11. Bass, L. M., Chesnavich, W. J., Bowers, M. T.: ibid. 101, 5493 (1979)Google Scholar
  12. Bates, D. R.: J. Phys. B: Atom Molec. Phys. 12, 4135 (1979)Google Scholar
  13. Bates, D. R.: Astrophys. J. 270, 564 (1983)Google Scholar
  14. Bell, M. B., Matthews, H. E.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 291, L63 (1985)Google Scholar
  15. Bester, M., Yamada, K., Winnewisser, G., Joentgen, W., Altenbach, H.-J., Vogel, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 137, L20 (1984)Google Scholar
  16. Blake, G. A.: Ph. D. Thesis (Calif. Inst. Tech.) (1985)Google Scholar
  17. Blake, G. A., Helminger, P., Herbst, E., De Lucia, F. C.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 264, L69 (1983)Google Scholar
  18. Blake, G. A., Keene, J., Phillips, T. G.: Astrophys. J., 295, 501 (1985)Google Scholar
  19. Bogey, M., Demuynck, C., Destombes, J. L.: Astron. Astrophys. 138, L11 (1984)Google Scholar
  20. Bogey, M., Demuynck, C., Denis, M., Destombes, J. L., Lemoine, B.: Astron. Astrophys. 137, L15 (1984)Google Scholar
  21. Bogey, M., Destombes, J. L.: Astron. Astrophys. (Letters) (in press) (1986)Google Scholar
  22. Bohme, D. K.: private communication (1985)Google Scholar
  23. Bohme, D. K., Raksit, A. B.: M.N.R.A.S. 213, 717 (1985)Google Scholar
  24. Broten, N. W., Oka, T., Avery, L. W., MacLeod, J. M.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 223, L105 (1978)Google Scholar
  25. Brown, R. D., Eastwood, F. W., Elmes, P. S., Godfrey, P. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 105, 6496 (1983)Google Scholar
  26. Brown, R. D., Godfrey, P. D., Elmes, P. S., Rodler, M., Tack, L. M.: ibid. 107, 4112 (1985)Google Scholar
  27. Cheung, A. C., Rank, D. M., Townes, C. H., Thornton, D. D., Welch, W. J.: Phys. Ref. Letters 21, 1701 (1968)Google Scholar
  28. Crawford, M. K., Tielens, A. G. G. M., Allamandola, L. J.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 293, L45 (1985)Google Scholar
  29. Cummins, S. E., Linke, R. A., Thaddeus, P.: submitted to Astrophys. J. Suppl. (1985)Google Scholar
  30. Dalgarno, A., Roberge, W. G.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 233, L25 (1979)Google Scholar
  31. d'Hendecourt, L. B., Allamandola, L. J., Baas, F., Greenberg, J. M.: Astron. Astrophys. 109, L12 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. De Frees, D. J., McLean, A. D., Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 279, 323 (1984)Google Scholar
  33. De Frees, D. J., McLean, A. D., Herbst, E.: ibid. 293, 236 (1985)Google Scholar
  34. De Lucia, F. C., Herbst, E., Plummer, G., Blake, G. A.: J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2312 (1983)Google Scholar
  35. De Lucia, F., Helminger, P., Gordy, W.: Phys. Rev. A 3, 1849 (1971)Google Scholar
  36. Duley, W. W., Williams, D. A.: M.N.R.A.S. 196, 269 (1981)Google Scholar
  37. Duley, W. W., Williams, D. A.: Interstellar Chemistry, Academic Press, London 1984Google Scholar
  38. Elitzur, M., Watson, W. D.: Astrophys. J. 236, 172 (1980)Google Scholar
  39. Federer, W., Villinger, H., Howorka, F., Lindinger, W., Tosi, P., Bassi, D., Ferguson, E. E.: Phys. Rev. Letters 52, 2084 (1984)Google Scholar
  40. Federman, S. R.: Astrophys. J. 253, 601 (1982)Google Scholar
  41. Gerola, H., Glassgold, A. E.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 37, 1 (1978)Google Scholar
  42. Gordy, W., Cook, R. L.: Microwave Molecular Spectra, J. Wiley, New York 1984Google Scholar
  43. Gottlieb, C. A., Vrtilek, J. M., Gottlieb, E. W., Thaddeus, P., Hjalmarson, A.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 294, L55 (1985)Google Scholar
  44. Graedel, T. E., Langer, W. D., Frerking, M. A.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 48, 321 (1982)Google Scholar
  45. Green, S., Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 229, 121 (1979)Google Scholar
  46. Greenberg, J. M.: Scientific American 250, 124 (1984a)Google Scholar
  47. Greenberg, J. M.: Proceedings of Workshop on Laboratory and Observational Infrared Spectra of Interstellar Dust, Wolstencraft and Greenberg, eds., Occasional Reports of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh 12, 82 (1984b)Google Scholar
  48. Gudeman, C. S., Haese, N. N., Piltch, N. D., Woods, R. C.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 246, L47 (1981)Google Scholar
  49. Gudeman, C. S., Woods, R. C.: Phys. Rev. Letters 48, 1344 (1982)Google Scholar
  50. Hartman, J.: Astrophys. J. 21, 389 (1905)Google Scholar
  51. Hartquist, T. W., Oppenheimer, M., Dalgarno, A.: ibid. 236, 182 (1980)Google Scholar
  52. Herbst, E.: ibid. 205, 94 (1976)Google Scholar
  53. Herbst, E.: ibid. 222, 508 (1978)Google Scholar
  54. Herbst, E.: ibid. 237, 462 (1980a)Google Scholar
  55. Herbst, E.: ibid. 241, 197 (1980b)Google Scholar
  56. Herbst, E.: J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4412 (1981)Google Scholar
  57. Herbst, E.: Chem. Phys. 68, 323 (1982a)Google Scholar
  58. Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 252, 810 (1982b)Google Scholar
  59. Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 53, 41 (1983)Google Scholar
  60. Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 291, 226 (1985a)Google Scholar
  61. Herbst, E.: J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4017 (1985b)Google Scholar
  62. Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 292, 484 (1985c)Google Scholar
  63. Herbst, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 153, 151 (1985d)Google Scholar
  64. Herbst, E.: Origins of Life in press (1986)Google Scholar
  65. Herbst, E., Adams, N. G., Smith, D.: Astrophys. J. 269, 329 (1983)Google Scholar
  66. Herbst, E., Adams, N. G., Smith, D.: ibid. 285, 618 (1984)Google Scholar
  67. Herbst, E., Klemperer, W.: ibid. 185, 505 (1973)Google Scholar
  68. Herbst, E., Klemperer, W.: Physics Today 29, 32 (1976)Google Scholar
  69. Herbst, E., Knudson, S.: Astrophys. J. 245, 529 (1981)Google Scholar
  70. Herbst, E., Leung, C. M.: M.N.R.A.S. in press (1986)Google Scholar
  71. Herbst, E., Smith, D., Adams, N. G.: Astron. Astrophys. 138, L13 (1984)Google Scholar
  72. Hollis, J. M., Snyder, L. E., Lovas, F. J., Ulich, B. L.: Astrophys. J. 241, 158 (1980)Google Scholar
  73. Hollis, J. M., Snyder, L. E., Blake, D. H., Lovas, F. J., Suenram, R. D., Ulich, B. L.: ibid. 251, 541 (1982)Google Scholar
  74. Hoyle, F., Wickramasinghe, N. C.: Nature 268, 610 (1977)Google Scholar
  75. Hoyle, F., Wickramasinghe, N. C., Al-Mufti, S., Olavesen, A. H.: Astrophys. Space Sci. 81, 489 (1982)Google Scholar
  76. Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 33, 495 (1977)Google Scholar
  77. Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Mitchell, G. F.: Astrophys. J. 231, 456 (1979)Google Scholar
  78. Irvine, W. M., Schloerb, F. P.: ibid. 282, 516 (1984)Google Scholar
  79. Irvine, W. M., Schloerb, F. P., Hjalmarson, A., Herbst, E.: Protostars and Planets II, p 579, Univ. of Arizona, 1985Google Scholar
  80. Jaffe, D. T., Harris, A. I., Silber, M., Genzel, R., Betz, A. L.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 290, L59 (1985)Google Scholar
  81. Jarrold, M. F., Bowers, M. T., De Frees, D. J., McLean, A. D., Herbst, E.: in preparation (1985)Google Scholar
  82. Johannson, L. E. B., Andersson, C., Ellder, J., Friberg, P., Hjalmarson, A., Höglund, B., Irvine, W. M., Olofsson, H., Rydbeck, G.: Astron. Astrophys. 130, 227 (1984)Google Scholar
  83. Keene, J., Blake, G. A., Huggins, P. J., Phillips, T. G., Beichman, C. A.: Astrophys. J. 299, 967 (1985)Google Scholar
  84. Klebsch, W., Bester, M., Yamada, K., Winnewisser, G., Joentgen, W., Altenbach, H.-J., Vogel, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 152, L12 (1985)Google Scholar
  85. Knight, J. S., Freeman, C. G., McEwan, M. J., Adams, N. G., Smith, D.: submitted to Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Phys. (1985)Google Scholar
  86. Lafont, S., Lucas, R., Omont, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 106, 201 (1982)Google Scholar
  87. Langer, W. D., Graedel, T. E., Frerking, M. A., Armentrout, P. B.: Astrophys. J. 277, 581 (1984)Google Scholar
  88. Leger, A., Jura, M., Omont, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 144, 147 (1985)Google Scholar
  89. Leung, C. M., Herbst, E., Huebner, W. F.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 56, 231 (1984)Google Scholar
  90. Luine, J. A., Dunn, G. H.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 299, L67 (1985)Google Scholar
  91. Matthews, H. E., Irvine, W. M., Friberg, P., Brown, R. D., Godfrey, P. D.: Nature 310, 125 (1984)Google Scholar
  92. Marquette, J. B., Rowe, B. R., Dupeyrat, G., Roueff, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 147, 115 (1985)Google Scholar
  93. Michalopoulous, D. L., Geusic, M. E., Langridge-Smith, P. R. R., Smalley, R. E.: J. Chem. Phys. 80, 3556 (1984)Google Scholar
  94. Millar, T. J., Freeman, A.: M.N.R.A.S. 207, 405 (1984a)Google Scholar
  95. Millar, T. J., Freeman, A.: ibid. 207, 425 (1984b)Google Scholar
  96. Mitchell, G. F.: ibid. 205, 765 (1983)Google Scholar
  97. Mitchell, G. F.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 54, 81 (1984)Google Scholar
  98. Mitchell, G. F., Ginsburg, J. L., Kuntz, P. J.: ibid. 38, 39 (1978)Google Scholar
  99. Mitchell, G. F., Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Nature 278, 722 (1979)Google Scholar
  100. Mitchell, G. F., Huntress, W. T., Prasad, S. S.: Astrophys. J. 233, 102 (1979)Google Scholar
  101. Moore, M. H., Donn, B.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 257, L47 (1982)Google Scholar
  102. Morris, M., Zuckermann, B., Palmer, P., Turner, B. E.: Astrophys. J. 186, 501 (1973)Google Scholar
  103. Mul, P. M., McGowan, J. Wm.: ibid. 237, 749 (1980)Google Scholar
  104. Phillips, T. G., Huggins, P. J.: ibid. 251, 533 (1971)Google Scholar
  105. Phillips, T. G., Blake, G. A., Keene, J., Woods, R. C., Churchwell, E.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 294, L45 (1985)Google Scholar
  106. Plummer, G. M., Herbst, E., De Lucia, F. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1428 (1985)Google Scholar
  107. Prasad, S. S., Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 43, 1 (1980a)Google Scholar
  108. Prasad, S. S., Huntress, W. T., Jr.: Astrophys. J. 239, 151 (1980b)Google Scholar
  109. Rowe, B. R., Dupeyrat, G., Marquette, J. B., Smith, D., Adams, N. G., Ferguson, E. E.: J. Chem. Phys. 80, 241 (1984)Google Scholar
  110. Rosenstock, H. M., Draxl, K., Steiner, B. W., Herron, J. T.: Energetics of Gaseous Ions (Suppl. to the J. Phys. Chem. Ref. data, Vol. 6, 1977)Google Scholar
  111. Schiff, H. I., Bohme, D. K.: Astrophys. J. 232, 740 (1979)Google Scholar
  112. Schwahn, G., Schieder, R., Bester, M., Winnewisser, G.: J. Mol. Spectrosc. (in press) (1985)Google Scholar
  113. Smith, D., Adams, N. G.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 220, L87 (1978)Google Scholar
  114. Smith, D., Adams, N. G.: Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 1, 271 (1981)Google Scholar
  115. Smith, D., Adams, N. G., Alge, E., Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 272, 365 (1983)Google Scholar
  116. Snyder, L. E., Wilson, T. L., Henkel, C., Jewell, R., Walmsley, C. M.: BAAS 16, 959 (1984)Google Scholar
  117. Spitzer, L., Jr.: Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium, New York: Wiley-Interscience 1978Google Scholar
  118. Sutton, E. C., Blake, G. A., Masson, C. R., Phillips, T. G.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 58, 341 (1985); ibid 60, 357 (1986)Google Scholar
  119. Suzuki, H.: Astrophys. J. 272, 579 (1983)Google Scholar
  120. Tang, B. T., Inokuchi, H., Saito, S., Yamada, Ch., Hirota, E.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 116, 83 (1985)Google Scholar
  121. Tarafdar, S. P., Prasad, S. S., Huntress, W. T., Jr., Villere, K. R., Black, D. C.: Astrophys. J. 289, 220 (1985)Google Scholar
  122. Thaddeus, P., Gottlieb, C. A., Hjalmarson, A., Johansson, L. E. B., Irvine, W. M., Friberg, P., Linke, R. A.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 294, L49 (1985)Google Scholar
  123. Thaddeus, P., Vrtilek, J. M., Gottlieb, C. A.: Astrophys. J. 299, L63 (1985a)Google Scholar
  124. Thaddeus, P., Guélin, M., Linke, R. A.: Astrophys. J. 246, L41 (1981)Google Scholar
  125. Thaddeus, P., Cummins, S. E., Linke, R. A.: ibid. 283, L45 (1984)Google Scholar
  126. Thorne, L. R., Anicich, V. G., Prasad, S. S., Huntress, Jr. W. T.: ibid. 280, 139 (1984)Google Scholar
  127. Tielens, A. G. G. M., Hagen, W.: Astron. Astrophys. 114, 245 (1982)Google Scholar
  128. Toelle, F., Ungerechts, H., Walmsley, C. M., Winnewisser, G., Churchwell, E.: ibid. 95, 143 (1981)Google Scholar
  129. Vrtilek, J. M., Thaddeus, P., Gottlieb, C. A.: BAAS. 17, 568 (1985)Google Scholar
  130. Walmsley, C. M., Winnewisser, G., Toelle, F.: Astron. Astrophys. 81, 245 (1980)Google Scholar
  131. Walmsley, C. M., Jewell, P. R., Snyder, L. E., Winnewisser, G.: ibid. 134, L11 (1984)Google Scholar
  132. Warner, H. E., Connor, W. T., Petrmichl, R. H., Woods, R. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2514 (1984)Google Scholar
  133. Watson, W. D.: Univ. of Illinois preprint ILL-(AST)-83-26 (1983)Google Scholar
  134. Watson, W. D., Salpeter, E. E.: Astrophy. J. 174, 321 (1972a)Google Scholar
  135. Watson, W. D., Salpeter, E. E.: ibid. 175, 659 (1972b)Google Scholar
  136. Weinreb, S., Barrett, A. H., Meeks, M. L., Henry, J. C.: Nature 200, 829 (1963)Google Scholar
  137. Williams, D. A.: Astrophysical Letters 10, 17 (1972)Google Scholar
  138. Winnewisser, G.: Topics in Current Chemistry 99, 39 (1981)Google Scholar
  139. Winnewisser, G., Mezger, P. G., Breuer, H. D.: ibid. 44, 1 (1974)Google Scholar
  140. Winnewisser, G., Churchwell, E., Walmsley, C. M.: Modern Aspects of Microwave Spectroscopy (Chantry, G. W. ed.) Academic Press 1979Google Scholar
  141. Winnewisser, G., Toelle, F., Ungerechts, H., Walmsley, C. M.: Proceedings IAU Symp. No. 87, 59 (1980)Google Scholar
  142. Winnewisser, G., Aliev, M. R., Yamada, K.: Proceed. ESA Workshop, ESA Sp-189, 23 (1982)Google Scholar
  143. Winnewisser, G.: Winnewisser, M., Christiansen, J. J.: Astron. Astrophys. 109, 141 (1982)Google Scholar
  144. Winnewisser, G., Walmsley, C. M.: Astrophys. Spa. Science 65, 83 (1979)Google Scholar
  145. Wolstencraft, R. D., Greenberg, J. M., eds.: Proceedings of Workshop on Laboratory and Observational Infrared Spectra of Interstellar Dust, Occasional Reports of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh 12, (1984)Google Scholar
  146. Woods, R. C., Gudeman, C. S., Dickman, R. L., Goldsmith, P. F., Huguenin, G. R., Irvine, W. M., Hjalmarson, A., Nyman, L.-A., Olofsson, H.: Astrophys. J. 270, 583 (1983)Google Scholar
  147. Woods, R. C.: Proceed. of IAU Symp. No. 120 on Astrochemistry (Reidel 1986 to be published)Google Scholar
  148. Wyse, F. C., Manson, E. L., Gordy, W.: J. Chem. Phys. 57, 1106 (1972)Google Scholar
  149. Ziurys, L. M., Turner, B. E.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 292, L25 (1985)Google Scholar
  150. Ziurys, L. M., Turner, B. E.: Proceed. of IAU Symp. No. 120 on Astrochemistry (Reidel 1986 to be published)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gisbert Winnewisser
    • 1
  • Eric Herbst
    • 2
  1. 1.I. Physikalisches InstitutUniversität zu KölnKölnFRG
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations