Musica ex machina: Composing 16th-century counterpoint with genetic programming and symbiosis

  • John Polito
  • Jason M. Daida
  • Tommaso F. Bersano-Begey
Genetic Programming: Issues and Applications
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1213)


GPmuse is software which explores one connection between computation and creativity using a symbiosis-inspired genetic programming paradigm in which distinct agents collaborate to produce 16th-century counterpoint.


Fitness Function Genetic Programming Selection Agent Note Structure Music Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Aron, P., 1524. Toscanello in musica, Book 2, Ch. 16, trans. P. Bergquist, 1970, Colorado Springs: Colorado College Music Press.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Boden, M.A., 1992. The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms, New York: BasicBooks.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Boden, M.A., 1996. “Artificial genius,” Discover, 17(10), pp. 104–113.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Cage, J., 1973. Silence: Lectures and Writings, Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Cope, D., 1991. Computers and Musical Style, A-R Editions, Inc.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Daida, J.M., S.J. Ross, B.C. Hannan, 1995. “Biological symbiosis as a metaphor for computational hybridization,” Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, L.J. Eshelman (ed.), San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., pp. 328–335.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Daida, J.M., C.S. Grasso, S.A. Stanhope, S.J. Ross, 1996. “Symbionticism and complex adaptive systems I: Implications of having symbiosis occur in nature,” Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, Cambridge: The MIT Press, in press.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Josquin des Pres. Early 1500s. ed. 1979. London: Chester Music J. W. C.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Fux, J.J., 1725. Gradus ad Parnassum, trans. Alfred Mann. 1971, The Study of Counterpoint. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Grout, D.J., C.V. Palisca, 1996. A History of Western Music, 5th edition., New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Gruau, F., D. Whitley, 1993. “Adding learning to the cellular development of neural networks: Evolution and the Baldwin Effect,” Journal of Evolutionary Computation, 1(3), pp. 213–233.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Holtzman, S.R., 1994. Digital Mantras: The Languages of Abstract and Virtual Worlds, Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Jacob, B.L., 1995. “Composing with genetic algorithms, “Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Jacob, B.L., 1996. “Algorithmic composition as a model of creativity,” Organised Sound, 1(3).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Koza, J.R., 1992. Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Koza, J.R., 1994. Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Koza, J.R., F.H. Bennett III, D. Andre, M.A. Keane, 1996. “Automatic WYWIWYG design of both the topology and component values of electrical circuits using genetic programming,” Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, J.R. Koza, D.E. Goldberg, D.B. Fogel, and R.L. Riolo (eds.), Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 123–131.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Putnam, J., 1996. “A grammar-based genetic programming technique applied to music generation,” Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, Cambridge: The MIT Press, in press.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Soderlund, G.F. 1947. Direct Approach to Counterpoint in the 16th Century Style, New York: F. S. Crofts & Co.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Xenakis, I., 1992. Formalized music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition, revised edition. Pendragon Press.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Zarlino, G., 1558. Le istitutioni harmoniche, Part 3, trans. G.A. Marco and C.V. Palisca, 1968, appears in The Art of Counterpoint, New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Polito
    • 1
  • Jason M. Daida
    • 1
  • Tommaso F. Bersano-Begey
    • 1
  1. 1.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and Space Physics Research LaboratoryThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations