Advertisement

Formal specification of beliefs in multi-agent systems

  • Massimo Benerecetti
  • Alessandro Cimatti
  • Enrico Giunchiglia
  • Fausto Giunchiglia
  • Luciano Serafini
Part IV: Theories
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1193)

Abstract

The formalization of agents attitudes, and belief in particular, has been investigated in the past by the authors of this paper, along two different but related streams. Giunchiglia and Giunchiglia investigate the properties of contexts for the formal specification of agents mutual beliefs, combining extensional specification with (finite) presentation by means of contexts. Cimatti and Serafini address the representational and implementational implications of the use of contexts for representing prepositional attitudes by tackling a paradigmatic case study. The goal of this paper is to show how these two streams are actually complementary, i.e. how the methodology proposed in the former can be successfully applied to formally specify the case study discussed in the latter. In order to achieve this goal, the formal framework is extended to take into account some relevant aspects of the case study, the specification of which is then worked out in detail.

Keywords

Multi Agent System Belief System Ideal Observer Extensional Specification Conditional Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Cimatti and L. Serafini. Multi-Agent Reasoning with Belief Contexts: the Approach and a Case Study. In M. Wooldridge and N. R. Jennings, editors, Intelligent Agents: Proceedings of 1994 Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, number 890 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 71–85. Springer Verlag, 1995. Also IRST-Technical Report 9312-01, IRST, Trento, Italy.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Cimatti and L. Serafini. Multi-Agent Reasoning with Belief Contexts II: Elaboration Tolerance. In Proc. 1st Int. Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS-95), pages 57–64, 1996. Also IRST-Technical Report 9412-09, IRST, Trento, Italy. Commonsense-96, Third Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, Stanford University, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.R. Cohen and H.J. Levesque. Intention Is Choice with Commitment. Artificial Intelligence, 42:213–261,1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Fagin and J.Y. Halpern. Belief, awareness, and limited reasoning. Artificial Intelligence, 34:39–76, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Giunchiglia. Multilanguage systems. In Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, 1991. Also IRST-Technical Report 9011-17, IRST, Trento, Italy.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Giunchiglia and E. Giunchiglia. Ideal and Real Belief about Belief: Some intuitions. In Agents Breaking Away, Proc. MAAMAW'96, number 1038 in Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pages 1–12. Springer Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Giunchiglia and L. Serafini. Multilanguage hierarchical logics (or: how we can do without modal logics). Artificial Intelligence, 65:29–70, 1994. Also IRST-Technical Report 9110-07, IRST, Trento, Italy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Giunchiglia, L. Serafini, E. Giunchiglia, and M. Frixione. Non-Omniscient Belief as Context-Based Reasoning. In Proc. of the 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 548–554,Chambery,France, 1993. Also IRST-Technical Report 9206-03, IRST, Trento, Italy.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Konolige. A deduction model of belief. Pitman, London, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Konolige. Explanatory Belief Ascription: notes and premature formalization. In Proc of the third Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge, pages 85–96, 1990.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Lansky. Localized Event-Based Reasoning for Multiagent Domains. Computational Intelligence, 4:319–339, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Lomuscio and M. Colombetti. QLB: a quantified logic for belief. In J. P. Müller, M. J. Wooldridge, and N. R. Jennings, editors, Intelligent Agents III — Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages (ATAL-96), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996. In this volume.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Luck and M. d'Inverno. A formal framework for agency and autonomy. In Proc. 1st Int. Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS-95), pages 254–260, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. McCarthy. Formalization of Two Puzzles Involving Knowledge. In V. Lifschitz, editor, Formalizing Common Sense — Papers by John McCarthy, pages 158–166. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. McCarthy. Notes on Formalizing Context. Unpublished, 1991.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Noriega and C. Sierra. Towards layered dialogical agents. In J. P. Müller, M. J. Wooldridge, and N. R. Jennings, editors, Intelligent Agents III —Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages (ATAL-96), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996. In this volume.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Prawitz. Natural Deduction — A proof theoretical study. Almquist and Wiksell, Stockholm, 1965.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. S. Rao and M. Georgeff. BDI-Agents, from Theory to Practice. In Proc. 1st Int. Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS-95), pages 312–319, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. S. Rao and M. P. Georgeff. Modeling rational agents within a BDI architecture. In J. Allen, R. Fikes, and E. Sandewall, editors, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Principle of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. J. Wooldridge. A knowledge-theoretic semantics for concurrent metatem. In J. P. Müller, M. J. Wooldridge, and N. R. Jennings, editors, Intelligent Agents III — Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages (ATAL-96), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996. In this volume.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimo Benerecetti
    • 1
  • Alessandro Cimatti
    • 2
  • Enrico Giunchiglia
    • 1
  • Fausto Giunchiglia
    • 2
  • Luciano Serafini
    • 2
  1. 1.DIST - University of GenoaGenovaItaly
  2. 2.IRST - Istituto Trentino di CulturaPovo, TrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations