Frequency Control and Inertial Response Schemes for the Future Power Networks

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Future power systems face several challenges: (i) the high penetration level of renewable energy from highly variable generators connected over power converters, (ii) several technologies for energy storage with very different time constants, some of them using power converters as an interface to the grid, and (iii) a pan-European transmission network facilitating the integration of large-scale renewable energy sources and the balancing and transportation of electricity based on underwater multi-terminal high voltage direct current (MTDC) transmission. All of them have an element in common, high power converters that decouple the new energy sources from the pre-existent AC power systems. During a system frequency disturbance, the generation/demand power balance is lost, the system frequency will change at a rate initially determined by the total system inertia. However, future power systems will increase the installed power capacity (MVA) but the effective system inertial response will stay the same nowadays, because the new generation units based on power converters creates a decoupling effect of the real inertia and the AC grid. The result is deeper frequency excursions of system disturbances. A considerable reduction in the ability to overcome system frequency disturbances is expected, the inertia response may be decreased. The aim of this chapter is to present the fundamental aspects of system frequency control and inertial response schemes for the future power networks.

Keywords

Frequency controller Frequency stability Future power networks Power system Protection scheme Wind turbine generator 

References

  1. 1.
    UN (2011) The conference of the parties. The Cancun agreement. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1, Decision 1/CP.16, The Cancun agreements: outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc working group on long-term cooperative action under the convention. Decision [1/CP.16]. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2011
  2. 2.
    EUREL Electrical Power Vision 2040 for Europe. www.eurel.org/home/…/EUREL-PV2040-Full_Version_Web.pdf (Online)
  3. 3.
    GOV.UK (2011) Policy reducing the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/reducing-the-uk-s-greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-80-by-2050
  4. 4.
    Legislation.gov.uk (2008) Climate Change Act 2008. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27/contents
  5. 5.
    Winzer C (2012) Conceptualizing energy security. Energy Policy 46:36–48Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    EU (2009) Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:001:0065:0071:EN:PDF
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    DECC (2011) Planning our electric future: a white paper for secure affordable and low carbon electricity. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/planning-our-electric-future-a-white-paper-for-secure-affordable-and-low-carbon-energy
  10. 10.
    CarbonTrust (2012) Strategic assessment of the role and value of energy storage systems in the UK low carbon energy future. http://www.carbontrust.com/media/129310/energy-storage-systems-role-value-strategic-assessment.pdf
  11. 11.
    ENTSO-e (2012) European network of transmission system operators for electricity: operation handbook. https://www.entsoe.eu/publications/system-operations-reports/operation-handbook/
  12. 12.
    NG (2013) The Grid Code: Issue 5 Revision 3—2 April 2013. http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/Electricity/Codes/gridcode/gridcodedocs/
  13. 13.
    Kundur P, Paserba J, Ajjarapu V, Andersson G, Bose A, Canizares C et al (2004) Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions. IEEE Trans Power Syst 19:1387–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Erinmez IA, Bickers DO, Wood GF, Hung WW (1999) NGC experience with frequency control in England and Wales-provision of frequency response by generators. In: Power Engineering Society 1999 Winter Meeting, IEEE, vol 1, pp 590–596Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Machowski J, Bialek JW, Bumby JR (2008) Power system dynamics: stability and control, 2nd edn. Wiley, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bevrani H (2009) Robust power system frequency control: robust techniques, 1st edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis A, Kazachkov Y, Muljadi E, Pourbeik P, Sanchez-Gasca JJ (2011) Description and technical specifications for generic WTG models—a status report. In: Power systems conference and exposition (PSCE), 2011 IEEE/PES, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ekanayake J, Jenkins N (2004) Comparison of the response of doubly fed and fixed-speed induction generator wind turbines to changes in network frequency. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 19:800–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muljadi E, Gevorgian V, Singh M, Santoso S (2012) Understanding inertial and frequency response of wind power plants. In: Power electronics and machines in wind applications (PEMWA), 2012 IEEE, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yuan-Zhang S, Zhao-Sui Z, Guo-jie L, Jin L (2010) Review on frequency control of power systems with wind power penetration. In: 2010 international conference on power system technology (POWERCON), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holdsworth L, Ekanayake JB, Jenkins N (2004) Power system frequency response from fixed speed and doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbines. Wind Energy 7:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morren J, De Haan SWH, Kling WL, Ferreira JA (2006) Wind turbines emulating inertia and supporting primary frequency control. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21:433–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ping-Kwan K, Pei L, Banakar H, Ooi BT (2009) Kinetic energy of wind-turbine generators for system frequency support. IEEE Trans Power Syst 24:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Teninge A, Jecu C, Roye D, Bacha S, Duval J, Belhomme R (2009) Contribution to frequency control through wind turbine inertial energy storage. IET Renew Power Gener 3:358–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ullah NR, Thiringer T, Karlsson D (2008) Temporary primary frequency control support by variable speed wind turbines—potential and applications. IEEE Trans Power Syst 23:601–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeong Y (2011) Comparison and testing of active power control strategies for grid-connected wind turbines. In: Colorado School of Mines, Division of EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duval J, Meyer B (2009) Frequency behavior of grid with high penetration rate of wind generation. In PowerTech, 2009 IEEE Bucharest, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cao Z, Wang X, Tan J (2012) Control strategy of large-scale DFIG-based wind farm for power grid frequency regulation. In: 31st Chinese control conference (CCC) 2012, pp 6835–6840Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vidyanandan KV, Senroy N (2013) Primary frequency regulation by deloaded wind turbines using variable droop. IEEE Trans Power Syst 28:837–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Almeida RG, Peas Lopes JA (2007) Participation of doubly fed induction wind generators in system frequency regulation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22:944–950Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiang Q, Gong Y, Wang H (2013) A battery energy storage system dual-layer control strategy for mitigating wind farm fluctuations. IEEE Trans Power Syst 28:3263–3273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chowdhury MM, Haque ME, Gargoom A, Negnevitsky M (2012) A direct drive grid connected wind energy system with STATCOM and super-capacitor energy storage. In: 2012 IEEE international conference on power system technology (POWERCON), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang L, Yu JY, Chen YT (2011) Dynamic stability improvement of an integrated offshore wind and marine-current farm using a flywheel energy-storage system. IET Renew Power Gener 5:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Islam F, Al-Durra A, Muyeen SM (2013) Smoothing of wind farm output by prediction and supervisory-control-unit-based FESS. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy PP:1–9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lubosny Z, Bialek JW (2007) Supervisory control of a wind farm. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22:985–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gonzalez-Longatt FM (2012) Effects of the synthetic inertia from wind power on the total system inertia: simulation study. In: 2012 2nd international symposium on environment friendly energies and applications (EFEA), pp 389–395Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gonzalez-Longatt F (2012) Impact of synthetic inertia from wind power on the protection/control schemes of future power systems: simulation study. In: 11th international conference on developments in power systems protection (DPSP) 2012, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gonzalez-Longatt F, Chikuni E, Stemmet W, Folly K (2012) Effects of the synthetic inertia from wind power on the total system inertia after a frequency disturbance. In: Power engineering society conference and exposition in Africa (PowerAfrica), IEEE 2012, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miller N, Clark K, Walling R (2009) WindINERTIA: controlled inertial response from GE wind turbine generators. In: Presented at the 45th annual Minnesota power systems conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miller NW, Clark K, Shao M (2011) Frequency responsive wind plant controls: Impacts on grid performance. In: Power and energy society general meeting, 2011 IEEE, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wachtel S, Beekmann A (2009) Contribution of wind energy converters with inertia emulation to frequency control and frequency stability in power systems. In: Presented at the 8th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind farms, Bremen, Germany, 2009Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    ENERCON (2011) WindBlast. ENERCON Magazine for wind energy Issue 03 | 2010. www.enercon.de, http://www.enercon.de/p/downloads/Windblatt_0310_engl.pdf
  43. 43.
    Brisebois J, Aubut N (2011) Wind farm inertia emulation to fulfill Hydro-Quebec’s specific need. In: Power and energy society general meeting, 2011 IEEE, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
    ENTSO-e (2011) ENTSO-E draft requirements for grid connection. https://www.entsoe.eu/index.php?id=42&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=106
  46. 46.
    Christensen PW, Tarnowski GC (2011) Inertia for wind power plants—state-of-the-art review—year 2011. In: Presented at the 10th international workshop on integration of wind power in power systems, Århus, Denmark, 2011Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gonzalez-Longatt F, Roldan JM (2012) Effects of DC voltage control strategies of voltage response on multi-terminal HVDC following a disturbance. In: 47th international universities power engineering conference (UPEC) 2012, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gonzalez-Longatt F, Roldan JM, Charalambous CA (2012) Solution of AC/DC power flow on a multiterminal HVDC system: illustrative case supergrid phase I. In: 47th international universities power engineering conference (UPEC) 2012, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    FOSG (2011) Friends of the supergrid. http://www.friendsofthesupergrid.eu/
  50. 50.
    Rudion K, Orths A, Eriksen PB, Styczynski ZA (2010) Toward a Benchmark test system for the offshore grid in the North Sea. In: Power and energy society general meeting, 2010 IEEE, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Foundation. Clean power from deserts—the DESERTEC concept for energy, water and climate security. www.desertec.org/downloads/articles/trec_white_paper.pdf
  52. 52.
    Vrana TK, Torres-Olguin RE, Liu B, Haileselassie TM (2010) The North Sea super grid—a technical perspective. In: 9th IET international conference on AC and DC power transmission (ACDC) 2010, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bangar A, Hamidi V (2012) Control strategy requirements for connection of offshore windfarms using VSC-HVDC for frequency control. In: 10th IET international conference on AC and DC power transmission (ACDC) 2012, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    FOSG (2010) Friends of supergrind. Position paper on the EC communication for a European infrastructure package. http://www.friendsofthesupergrid.eu/documentation.aspx
  55. 55.
    Haileselassie TM, Torres-Olguin RE, Vrana TK, Uhlen K, Undeland T (2011) Main grid frequency support strategy for VSC-HVDC connected wind farms with variable speed wind turbines. In: PowerTech, 2011 IEEE Trondheim, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhixin M, Lingling F, Osborn D, Yuvarajan S (2010) Wind farms With HVDC delivery in inertial response and primary frequency control. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 25:1171–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pipelzadeh Y, Chaudhuri B, Green TC (2012) Inertial response from remote offshore wind farms connected through VSC-HVDC links: a communication-less scheme. In: Power and energy society general meeting, 2012 IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jiebei Z, Campbell BD, Grain AP, Roscoe JA (2011) Inertia emulation control of VSC-HVDC transmission system. In: 2011 international conference on advanced power system automation and protection (APAP), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haileselassie TM, Uhlen K (2010) Primary frequency control of remote grids connected by multi-terminal HVDC. In: Power and energy society general meeting, 2010 IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hendriks RL, Paap GC, Kling WL (2007) Control of a multiterminal VSC transmission scheme for connecting offshore wind farms. In: European wind energy conference, Milan, Italy, 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and ComputingCoventry UniversityCoventryUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations