DC Grid Interconnection for Conversion Losses and Cost Optimization

  • R. K. Chauhan
  • B. S. Rajpurohit
  • S. N. Singh
  • F. M. Gonzalez-Longatt
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


The rapid increment of DC compatible appliances in the buildings, emerge the photovoltaic energy as the fastest growing source of renewable energy and expected to see continued strong growth in the immediate future. The photovoltaic power is, therefore, required to be provided with a certain reliability of supply and a certain level of stability. Motivated by the above issues, many grid operators have to develop DC micro-grids, which treat photovoltaic power generation in a special manner. The interconnection of different voltage rating distributed generation, storage and the load to the DC micro-grid requires large number of converters, which will increase the conversion power losses and the installation cost. Different types of Low Voltage Direct Current (LVDC) grid and their topologies are helpful in understanding the interconnection of distributed generation with consumers end. The connections of LVDC distribution system is discussed in this chapter. Optimization of LVDC grid voltage may reduce the conversion stage and the power loss in DC feeders. A multi-objective technique is discussed, in this chapter, to design a minimum power loss and low cost DC micro-grid.


DC-DC converter DC load Hybrid electric vehicle LVDC grid Photovoltaic 



This work was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, under the Science and Engineering Research Board Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientists (SERC/ET-0123/2012).


  1. 1.
    Uhlmann E (1975) Power transmission by direct current. Springer, Berlin, 289Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook (2011) Paris, France IEA publicationsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garbesi K, Vossos V, Shen H (2012) Catlog of dc appliances and power system.
  4. 4.
    Chiu HJ, Huang HM, Lin LW, and Tseng MH (2005) A multiple input DC-DC converter for renewable energy systems. In: Proceedings of 2005 IEEE international conference on industrial technology, pp 1304–1308Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khanna M, Rao ND (2009) Supply and demand of electricity in the developing world. Annu Rev Resource Econ 1:567–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noroozian R, Abedi M, Gharehpetian GB, Hosseini SH (2010) Distributed resources and DC distribution system combination for high power quality. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 32(7):769–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Solero L, Lidozzi A, Pomilio JA (2005) Design of multiple-input power converter to hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans Power Electron 20(5):1007–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jiang W, Zhang Y (2011) Load sharing techniques in hybrid power systems for dc micro-grids. In: Proceedings of 2011 IEEE power and energy engineering conference, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahmad Khan N (2012). Power loss modeling of isolated AC–DC converter. Dissertation, KTHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hayashi Y, Takao K et al (2009) Fundamental study of high density DC/DC converter design based on sensitivity analysis. In: IEEE telecommunications energy conference (INTELEC), pp 1–5Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kang T, Kim C et al (2012) A design and control of bi-directional non-isolated DC-DC converter for rapid electric vehicle charging system.In: Twenty-seventh IEEE annual applied power electronics conference and exposition (APEC), pp 14–21Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sizikov G, Kolodny A et al (2010) Efficiency optimization of integrated DC-DC buck converters. In: 17th IEEE international conference on electronics circuits and systems (ICECS), pp 1208–121Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vorperian V (2010) Simple efficiency formula for regulated DC-to-DC converters. IEEE trans Aerosp Electron 46(4):2123–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wens M, Steyaert M (2011) Basic DC-DC converter theory. Design and implementation of fully-integrated inductive DC-DC converters in standard CMOS, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang F, Du L et al. (2006) A new design method for high efficiency DC-DC converters with flying capacitor technology.In: IEEE twenty-first annual applied power electronics conference and exposition (APEC), pp 92–96Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Starke M, Tolbert L M, Ozpineci B (2008) AC vs. DC distribution: a loss comparison. In proceedings. of transmission and distribution conference and exposition, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Savage P, Nordhaus R et al (2010) DC microgrids: benefits and barriers. published for Renewable Energy and International Law (REIL) project. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, pp 0–9Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pellis J, P J I et al (1997). The DC low-voltage house. Dissertation, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECNGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chauhan R K, Rajpurohit B S, Pindoriya N M (2012) DC power distribution system for rural applications. In: Proceedings of 8th national conference on indian energy sector, pp 108–112Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salonen P, Kaipia T, Nuutinen P, Peltoniemi P, Partanen J (2008) An LVDC distribution system concept. Nordic Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics. A3-1–A3-16Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hossain MJ, Pota HR, Ugrinovskii V, Ramos RA (2009) Robust STATCOM control for the enhancement of fault ride-through capability of fixed speed wind generators. IEEE Control Applications (CCA) and Intelligent Control (ISIC),pp.1505–1510Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dastgeer F, Kalam A (2009) Efficiency comparison of DC and AC distribution systems for distributed generation. In: IEEE power engineering conference, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsson D, Sannino A (2004) Efficiency analysis of low-and medium-voltage dc distribution systems. In: IEEE power engineering society general meeting, pp 2315–2321Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peterson A Lundberg S (2002) Energy efficiency comparison of electrical systems for wind turbines, Nordic workshop on power and industrial electronics (NORPIE)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schroeder D(2008) Leistungselektronische Schaltungen (Power Electronic Circuits), Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Muehlbauer K, Gerling D (2012) Experimental verification of energy efficiency enhancement in power electronics at partial load. In: 38th annual conference on IEEE industrial electronics society (IECON), pp.394–397. doi:  10.1109/IECON.2012.6388788
  27. 27.
    Muehlbauer K, Bachl F, Gerling D (2011) Comparison of measurement and calculation of power losses in AC/DC-converter for electric vehicle drive. In: International conference on electrical machines and systems (ICEMS), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raj A (2010) PMP-DCDC controllers calculating efficiency: application report. Accessed February 2010
  29. 29.
    Amin M, Arafat Y et al. (2011) Low voltage DC distribution system compared with 230 V AC. In: IEEE electrical power and energy conference (EPEC), pp 340–345Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. K. Chauhan
    • 1
  • B. S. Rajpurohit
    • 1
  • S. N. Singh
    • 3
  • F. M. Gonzalez-Longatt
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Computing and Electrical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MandiMandiIndia
  2. 2.Coventry UniversityFaculty of Engineering and Computing EC3-32CoventryUK
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations