Career Paths: Challenges and Opportunities

Chapter

Abstract

Fundamental changes in the composition and functions of organisations have led to blurring of organisational boundaries and changing employment relationships. The notion of a career path has become increasingly ambiguous, with individuals taking increased responsibility for managing their own careers. Furthermore, the growing individualisation of employment policies and non-traditional employment has implications for the management of people at work, particularly the planning and management of employee careers. Career paths benefit both employee and employer. They can strengthen the psychological contract between employer and employee, ensure the employee is not restricted to a particular job, career path or organisation, as well as ensuring employees have the skills needed both now and in the future to contribute to organisational success. This chapter draws together relevant theories on how organisations treat the notion of career paths and how they implement strategies that will engender employee loyalty, create genuine career development and meet organisational objectives.

References

  1. Atkinson, C. (2002). Career management and the changing psychological contract. Career Development International, 7(1), 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). Year book Australia 2012. Canberra: ABS. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1301.0. Accessed 21 Jan 2013.
  3. Ballout, H. (2009). Career commitment and career success: Moderating role of self-efficacy. Career Development International, 14(7), 655–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett, B., & Bradley, L. (2007). The impact of organisational support for career development on career satisfaction. Career Development International, 12(7), 617–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baruch, Y. (2001). Employability: A substitute for loyalty? Human Resource Development International, 4(4), 543–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baugh, S. G., & Sullivan, S. E. (2009). Developmental relationships and the new workplace realities: A life span perspective on career development through mentoring. In S. G. Baugh & S. E. Sullivan (Eds.), Maintaining focus, energy and options over the career (pp. 27–50). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Baxter-Tomkins, A., & Wallace, M. (2012). Emergency service volunteers and the psychological contract. Paper presented at the 26th Annual Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) Conference, Perth, 5–7 December 2012.Google Scholar
  8. Berntson, E., Sverke, M., & Marklund, S. (2006). Predicting perceived employability: Human capital or labour market opportunities. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 27(2), 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briscoe, J., & Henagan, S., et al. (2012). Coping with an insecure employment environment: The differing roles of protean and boundaryless career orientations. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 80, 308–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capelli, P., & Neumark, D. (2004). External churning and internal flexibility: Evidence on the functional flexibility and core–periphery hypotheses. Industrial Relations, 43(1), 148–182.Google Scholar
  11. Chudzikowski, K. (2011). Career transitions and career success in the ‘new’ career era. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 81, 298–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke, M. (2013). The organizational career: Not dead but in need of redefinition. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(4), 684–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connelly, E., Gallagher, D., & Gilley, K. (2007). Organizational and client commitment among contracted employees: A replication and extension with temporary workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 326–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crawshaw, J., & Brodbeck, F. (2010). Justice and trust as antecedents of careerist orientation. Personnel Review, 40(1), 106–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Gama, N., McKenna, S., & Peticca-Harris, A. (2012). Ethics and HRM: Theoretical and conceptual analysis. An alternative approach to ethical HRM through the discourse and lived experiences of HR professionals. Journal of Business Ethics, 111, 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deery, M., & Jago, L. (2002). The core and the periphery: An examination of the flexible workforce model in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Delahaye, B. (2011). Human resource management: Managing learning and knowledge capital. (3rd edn.). Prahan, Vic: Tilde University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2013). Annual update of skilled occupation list—1 July 2012. Canberra: DIC. http://www.immi.gov.au/search/search.cgi. Accessed 14 May 2013.
  19. Doherty, N., Dickmann, M., & Mills, T. (2011). Exploring the motives of company-backed and self-initiated expatriates. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(3), 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dries, N. (2011). The meaning of career success: Avoiding reification through a closer inspection of historical, cultural and ideological contexts. Career Development International, 16(4), 364–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2008). Real high-potential careers: An empirical study into the perspectives of organisations and high potentials. Personnel Review, 37(1), 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, M. (2013). Confronting insecure employment: Greens’ private members bill. Advocate, 20(1), 21.Google Scholar
  23. Farndale, E., Hope-Hailey, V., & Kelliher, C. (2011). High commitment performance management: The roles of justice and trust. Personnel Review, 40(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gentry, W., & Griggs, T., et al. (2009). Generational differences in attitudes, beliefs, and preferences about development and learning at work. In S. G. Baugh & S. E. Sullivan (Eds.), Maintaining focus, energy and options over the career (pp. 51–73). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Gunz, H., Mayrhofer, W., & Tolbert, P. (2011). Career as a social and political phenomena in the globalised economy. Organization Studies, 32(2), 1613–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, D. (2002). Careers in and out of organisations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Hall, D. (2004). The protean career: A quarter-century journey. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, D., & Chandler, D. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 26, 155–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hevenstone, D. (2010). National context and atypical employment. International Sociology, 25(3), 315–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoekstra, H. (2011). A career roles model of career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78, 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hole, D., Zhong, L., & Schwartz, J. (2010). Talking about whose generation: Why western generational models can’t account for a global workforce. Deloitte Review, 6, 85–97.Google Scholar
  32. Holland, P., Hecker, R., & Steen, J. (2002). Human strategies and organisational structures for managing gold-collar workers. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26, 72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Inkson, K. (2007). Understanding careers: The metaphors of working lives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Inkson, K. (2008). Are humans resources? Career Development International, 13, 270–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Islam, G. (2012). Recognition, reification, and practice of forgetting: Ethical implications of human resource management. Journal of Business Ethics, 111, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kellett, J., Humphrey, R., & Sleeth, R. (2009). Career development, collective efficacy and individual task performance. Career Development International, 14(6), 534–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kramar, R. (2012). Trends in Australian human resource management: What next? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50, 133–150.Google Scholar
  38. LaMontagne, A., & Smith, P., et al. (2012). Psychosocial and other working conditions: Variation by employment arrangement in a sample of working Australians. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55(2), 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lawrence, B. (2011). Careers, social context and interdisciplinary thinking. Human Relations, 64(59), 59–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lent, R., Brown, S., & Hackett, G. (1994). Towards a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice and performance. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 45, 79–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lipsig-Mumme, C. (2005). Lost in translation? Precarious employment and its challenge to trade unions. Just Policy, 37, 25–31.Google Scholar
  42. McDonald, P., Bradley, L., & Brown, K. (2008). Visibility in the workplace: Still an essential ingredient for career success. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(12), 2198–2215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McLean, M. (2007). Effective career planning for the future benefits of both employees and employers. Position paper in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Liberal Studies, State University of New York.Google Scholar
  44. McNulty, Y., & De Cieri, H. (2011). Global mobility in the 21st century: Conceptualising expatriate return on investment in global firms. Management International Review, 51, 897–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muffels, R., & Luijkx, R. (2008) Labour market mobility and employment security of male employees in Europe: ‘Trade-off’ or ‘flexicurity’? Work, Employment & Society, 22(2), 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rowold, J., & Schilling, J. (2006). Career-related continuous learning: Longitudinal predictive power of employees’ job and career attitudes. Career Development International, 11(6), 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sargent, L., & Domberger, S. (2007). Exploring the development of a protean career orientation: Values and image violations. Career Development International, 12(6), 545–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Seibert, S., & Kraimer, M. (2001). The five-factor model of personality and career success. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 58, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2011). Acquired demographics and reasons to relocate among self-initiated expatriates. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(10), 2055–2070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smola, K., & Sutton, C. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 23, 363–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sullivan, S. E., & Baruch, Y. (2009). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of Management, 35, 1542–1571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Suutari, V., Tornikoski, C., & Makela, L. (2012). Career decision making of global careerists. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(16), 3455–3478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vance, A. M. (2006). ‘Y’ do they behave ‘X’tra differently? Executive Housekeeping Today, 28(5), 12–18.Google Scholar
  54. Waite, M., & Will, L. (2002). Fixed-term employees in Australia: Incidence and characteristics. Productivity Commission Staff Research Paper. Canberra: AusInfo.Google Scholar
  55. Watson, I. (2013). Bridges or traps? Casualisation and labour market transitions in Australia. Journal of Industrial Relations, 55(6), 6–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zoogah, D. (2010). Why should I be left behind? Employee’s perceived relative deprivation and participation in development activities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business SchoolSouthern Cross UniversityCoolangattaAustralia

Personalised recommendations