Proselytization, Religious Diversity and the State in Indonesia: The Offense of Deceiving a Child to Change Religion

Chapter
Part of the ARI - Springer Asia Series book series (ARI, volume 4)

Abstract

Since independence in 1945, the Indonesian government has attempted to regulate and control religious diversity. In 1946, a Ministry of Religion was established, and by 1965, a Presidential Decision was passed that is widely understood to have officially sanctioned six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism, although a diverse range of religions and beliefs outside these are permitted to exist. Of these six religions, it is Islam, Protestantism, and Catholicism that are recognized in Indonesia as “missionary” religions that aim to proselytize. The Ministry of Religion has the role of overseeing and regulating the religious affairs of these religions, including issuing guidelines or limits on proselytization. This chapter will argue, however, that in reality the regulations that have been created favor the religious majority. These regulations largely target and disadvantage Christians as members of the only other recognized religion in Indonesia, aside from Islam, that is considered to be a “missionary” or “proselytizing” religion.

References

  1. Agung, K. (1995). Penyajian Hasil Penelitian Peningkatan Wewenang Kejaksaan Dalam Pengawasan Aliran Kepercayaan (pp. viii–ix). Jakarta: Tim Peneliti Pusat Litbang.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. (2001). A history of the Pentecostal movement in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies, 4(1), 131–148.Google Scholar
  3. Aqsha, D., van der Meij, D., & Meuleman, J. D. (1995). Islam in Indonesia: A survey of events and developments from 1988 to March 1993 (pp. 93–97). Jakarta: INIS.Google Scholar
  4. Aritonang, J. S. (2004). Sejarah Perjumpaan Kristen Dan Islam Di Indonesia (p. 419). Jakarta: PT BPK Gunung Mulia.Google Scholar
  5. Azra, A. (2001). Islam and Christianity in Indonesia: The roots of conflict and hostility. In J. Camilleri (Ed.), Religion and culture in Asia Pacific: Violence or healing? (p. 85). Melbourne: Vista Publications/Pax Christi.Google Scholar
  6. Bessell, S. (2007). Children, welfare and protection: A new policy framework? In R. H. McLeod & A. MacIntyre (Eds.), Indonesia: Democracy and the promise of good governance. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Boland, B. J. (1982). The struggle of Islam in modern Indonesia (p. 224). Netherlands: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butt, S. (2007). Judicial review in Indonesia: Between civil law and accountability: A study of constitutional court decisions 2003–2005. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  9. Cole Durham, W., & Scharffs, B. G. (2010). Law and religion: National, international and comparative perspectives (pp. 177–179). New York: Aspen Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Crouch, M. (2007, July). Regulation on places of worship in Indonesia: Upholding the right to freedom of religion for religious minorities? Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 2007, 1–21.Google Scholar
  11. Crouch, M. (2010, December). Implementing the regulation on places of worship in Indonesia: New problems, local politics and court action. Asian Studies Review, 34, 403–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crouch, M. (2012, May). Law and religion in Indonesia: The constitutional court and the Blasphemy Law. Asian Journal of Comparative Law, 7(1), 1–46.Google Scholar
  13. Feener, M. (2007). Muslim legal thought in modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freston, P. (2001). Evangelicals and politics in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haire, J. (1981). The character and theological struggle of the church in Halmahera, Indonesia, 1941–1979 (p. 85). Frankfurt-am-Main und Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  16. Hasyim, U. (1979). Toleransi dan Kemerdekaan Beragama Dalam Islam Sebagai Dasar Menuju Dialog dan Kerukunan Antar Agama (pp. 393–416). Surabaya: Bina Ilmu.Google Scholar
  17. Hefner, R. (1993). Of faith and commitment: Christian conversion in Muslim Java. In R. Hefner (Ed.), Conversion to Christianity: Historical and anthropological perspectives on a great transformation (pp. 113–114). Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Human Rights Watch. (2013, February 28). In Religion’s name: Abuses against religious minorities in Indonesia. USA. www.hrw.org
  19. Kelabora, L. (1976). Religious instruction policy in Indonesia. Asian Survey, 16(3), 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koning, J. (2009). Singing yourself into existence: Chinese Indonesian entrepreneurs, Pentecostal-charismatic Christianity, and the Indonesian nation state. In J. Bautista & F. K. G. Lim (Eds.), Christianity and the state in Asia: Complicity and conflict (pp. 115–131). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Lindsey, T., & Kingsley, J. (2008). Talking in code: Legal Islamisation in Indonesia and the MMI Shari’a criminal code. In P. Bearman, W. Heinrichs, & B. Weiss (Eds.), The law applied: Contextualizing the Islamic Shari’a (p. 303). New York: IB Tauris & Co Ltd, 312.Google Scholar
  22. Majelis Ulama Indonesia. (2005). Fatwa Munas VII (3rd ed., pp. 58–65). Jakarta: Ministry of Religion.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Religion. (2003). Himpunan Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia (pp. 178–181). Jakarta: Ministry of Religion.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Religion. (2008). Kompilasi Peraturan Perundangan-undangan Kerukunan Hidup Umat Beragama (10th ed., pp. 238–239). Jakarta: Badan Litbang dan Diklat.Google Scholar
  25. Monnig-Atkinson, J. (1983). Religions in dialogue: The construction of an Indonesian Minority Religion. American Ethnologist, 10(4), 683, 687.Google Scholar
  26. Mudzhar, M. A. (1996). The council of Indonesian Ulama on Muslims’ attendance at Christmas celebrations. In M. K. Masud, B. Messick, & D. S. Powers (Eds.), Islamic legal interpretations: Muftis and their fatwas (p. 231). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Mujiburrahman. (2008). Feeling threatened: Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s new order (pp. 83–84). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Natsir, M. (1969). Islam dan Kristen di Indonesia. Jakarta: Bulan Sabit.Google Scholar
  29. Natsir, M. (1980). Mencari Modus Vivendi Antar Ummat Beragama. Jakarta: Media Dakwah.Google Scholar
  30. Noer, D. (1973). The modernist Muslim movement in Indonesia 1900–1942 (p. 168). Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Owens, A. (2006). Protecting freedom of and from religion: Questioning the law’s ability to protect against unethical conversions in Sri Lanka. Religion and Human Rights, 1(1), 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Owens, A. (2007). Using legislation to protect against unethical conversions in Sri Lanka. Journal of Law & Religion, 22(2), 323–351.Google Scholar
  33. Ricklefs, M. (1993). A history of modern Indonesia since c.1300 (p. 294). Hong Kong: Macmillan Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  34. Robinson, M. (2005). The growth of Indonesian Pentecostalism. In A. Anderson & E. Tang (Eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The charismatic face of Christianity in Asia. Malaysia: Regnum Books International.Google Scholar
  35. Robinson, M. (2011). Pentecostalism in urban Java: A study of religious change, 1980–2006. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Queensland, Queensland.Google Scholar
  36. Saeed, A., & Saeed, H. (2004). Freedom of religion, apostasy and Islam (p. 2). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Sairin, W. (1996). Himpunan Peraturan di Bidang Keagamaan (pp. 271–272). Jakarta: PT BPK Gunung Mulia.Google Scholar
  38. Shihab, N., & Nugroho, Y. (2008). The ties that bind: Law, Islamisation and Indonesia’s prosperous justice party (PKS). Australian Journal of Asian Law, 10(2), 248.Google Scholar
  39. Steenbrink, K. (1999). The Pancasila ideology and an Indonesian Muslim theology of religions. In J. Waardenburg (Ed.), Muslim perceptions of other religions: A historical survey (Vol. 80, pp. 282–283). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Steenbrink, K. (2000). Patterns of Muslim-Christian dialogue in Indonesia 1965–1998. In J. Waardenburg (Ed.), Muslim perceptions of dialogue today: Experiences and expectations (p. 93). Leuwen: Peeters.Google Scholar
  41. Steenbrink, K. (2003). Catholics in Indonesia: A documented history 1808–1900. Leiden: KITLV Press.Google Scholar
  42. Steenbrink, K. (2007). Catholics in Indonesia: A documented history 1903–1942. Leiden: KITLV Press.Google Scholar
  43. Suryadinata, L., et al. (2003). Indonesia’s population: Ethnicity and religion in a changing political landscape (pp. 104–105). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  44. von Denffer, A. (1987). Indonesia: Government decrees on mission and subsequent developments (pp. 12–15). Leicester: The Islamic Foundation.Google Scholar
  45. Williams, T. (2003). Pentecostalism’s answer to Indonesia’s unreached Muslims. Journal of Asian Mission, 5(1), 93–118.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Law FacultyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations