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Carbonization of Wasted Biomass and Carbon Sequestration

  • Pisit ManeechotEmail author
  • Prapita Thanarak
  • Haytham M. El Sharkawi
Chapter

Abstract

Charcoal primarily consists of carbon, which is the remains of hydrocarbons after its moisture and other volatile matters are driven out of the material by using pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process is carried out in which the biomass is heated to a temperature high enough in the absence or with limited amount of oxygen for eliminating the moisture and the volatile matter. Biochar is made by pyrolysis at low temperature around 400 °C and intended to be used as a conditioning agent to remedy a rough soil. A broad aspect of the impact includes physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil as well as the yield of produce from the conditioned soil. Other benefits include enhanced carbon content and storage for carbon sequestration, boosted plant nutrients, amended soil structure, and improved hydrology management. Several variations of smokeless kilns have been produced. Using electric heating results in near smokeless carbonization but makes the product more expensive in the end. Recapturing and treating the flue gases require intricate design and construction that makes the kiln more expensive to construct.

In Egypt, the new mechanized metal charcoal kiln is expected to improve local air quality by reducing emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and protect the local groundwater quality and land resources as well as vegetation and agricultural production from tar emissions. The sandy soil is incapable of retaining irrigation water and nutrients because it contains less amount of organic matter. Farmers apply organic matters or composts to improve the soil fertility. New lands in the Delta of Egypt are characterized by the absence of many diseases and contaminants that may be suffered by the old farmland in the same region. Using biochar and other value-added products instead of compost is one of the promising ways because it does not include the plant root diseases such as nematodes and fusarium and prevents from excessive application of pesticides and the resulting high production costs.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pisit Maneechot
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prapita Thanarak
    • 2
  • Haytham M. El Sharkawi
    • 3
  1. 1.Excellent Center for Asia Pacific Smart Grid Technology (APST)Naresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  2. 2.School of Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Technology (SGtech)Naresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  3. 3.Agricultural Research Center (ARC)GizaEgypt

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