Advertisement

A Conceptual Methodology for Estimating Embodied Carbon Emissions of Buildings in Sri Lanka

  • Amalka NawarathnaEmail author
  • Zaid Alwan
  • Barry Gledson
  • Nirodha Fernando
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 163)

Abstract

The reduction of whole building life cycle carbon requires equal attention on both operational carbon (OC) and embodied carbon (EC). Regardless of that, the Sri Lankan building sector concentrates mainly on reducing OC. The importance of reducing EC is yet to be fully realised. Therefore, there an opportunity exists to encourage research community, practitioners and policy makers associated with Sri Lankan building sector regarding EC reduction. The main drive towards EC reduction is estimation or assessment, as without this, it is impossible to realise the extent to how much is needed to be reduced. Even though, EC estimation process has been well developed and documented over the last years, it is yet a challenging process to Sri Lanka due to many difficulties such as difficulty in setting up a suitable estimation scope, unavailability of an up to date country-specific EC coefficient database for building materials and time consuming and work intensive nature of the estimation procedure due to unavailability of a suitable estimation tool. To deal with these challenges, initially it requires to establish a conceptual EC estimation methodology appropriate to the Sri Lankan building context. Accordingly, this study developed an EC estimation methodology based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; setting up the scope, performing EC coefficient inventory analysis and undertaking EC estimation and interpretation. Subsequently, the developed methodology was verified in terms of its applicability using a proposed commercial building in Sri Lanka. As a further study, it is intended to develop a statistical tool to estimate EC during design stage of commercial buildings in Sri Lanka conforming to this methodology.

Keywords

Embodied carbon estimation Buildings Sri Lanka 

References

  1. 1.
    International Eneregy Agency: Buildings—Tracking Clean Energy Progress. https://www.iea.org/tcep/buildings/
  2. 2.
    RICS: Methodology to calculate embodied carbon of materials—RICS Information Paper (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4444-8_4Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L., Acquaye, A.: Operational versus embodied emissions in buildings—a review of current trends. Energy Build. 66, 232–245 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nebel, B., Alcorn, A., Wittstock, B.: Life cycle assessment: adopting and adapting overseas LCA data and methodologies for building materials in New Zealand (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ruuska, A.: Role of embodied energy, operational energy and related greenhouse gas emission of buildings in the context of developing tropical countries. In: SB13 Singapore-Realising Sustainability in Tropics, pp. 205–211 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lucon, O., Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Ahmed, A.Z., Akbari, H., Bertoldi, P.: Buildings (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Institute, B.S.: BS EN 15978:2011—Sustainability of construction works—Assessment of environmental performance of buildings—Calculation method. (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nawarthna, A., Alwan, Z., Fernando, N., Gledson, B.: Estimating embodied carbon emissions of buildings in developing countries: a case study from Sri lanka. In: Fourth International SEEDS Conference, pp. 821–831 (2018)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    International Eneregy Agency: IEA EBC ANNEX 57—Overview of Annex 57 Results (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lockie, S., Berebecki, P., Davies, J., London Paul Dunne, D., Fiske, J., MacDonald, M., Matt Fulford, R., Markus Gaebel, S., Green, A., Steve Hadden, G., Hitchin, R., Craig Jones, C., Ecology Stefaan Martel, C., Jeff Maxted, B., Newman, G., Nsibande, C., Properties Jerry Percy, B., Andy Powell, G., Ralph, P., Langdon Martin Russell-Croucher, D., Nigel Sagar, R., Matthew Saunders, S., Michael Smithing, R., Steele, K., Anna Surgenor, A., Eddy Taylor, U., Graham Watts, R., David Weight, C., Langdon Jim Wiltshire, D.: RICS Professional Guidance, Global Methodology to calculate embodied carbon Alliance for Sustainable Building Products Acknowledgments Methodology to calculate embodied carbon RICS guidance note, Global 1st edn. Green Building Certification (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sturgis, S.: Embodied and whole life carbon assessment for architects (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000244906.48448.5dCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    AIA Guide to Building Life Cycle Assessment in Practice Authorship and Acknowledgements (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    UKGBC: Practical how-to guide: Measuring Embodied Carbon on a Project Background to BRE & UK Green Building Council. (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ashworth, A.P.: S: Cost Studies of Buildings. Routledge, Oxon (20107)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Low-Carbon Construction Innovation and Growth Team: Low Carbon Construction Executive Summary (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority: Code of practice for energy efficient buildings in Sri Lanka-2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    GBCSL: Green Sl ® Rating System for Built Environment (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumanayake, R., Luo, H., Paulusz, N.: Assessment of material related embodied carbon of an office building in Sri Lanka. Energy Build. 166, 250–257 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.01.065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pooliyadda, S.P.: Energy Content and Carbon Emission Audit of Building Materials (2000)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jayasinghe, C.: Embodied energy of alternative building materials and their impact on life cycle cost parameters. In: Icsecm, pp. 1–20 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Udawattha, C., Halwatura, R.: Embodied energy of mud concrete block (MCB) versus brick and cement blocks. Energy Build. 126, 28–35 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.04.059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nawarathna, A., Fernando, N., Alwan, Z.: Reasons for the slow uptake of embodied carbon estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector.12, 102–107 (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    RIBA: RIBA Plan of Work 2013 Overview (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Surveyors, R.I. of C.: Elemental Standard Form of Cost Analysis Principles, Instructions, Elements and Definitions 4th (NRM) Edition. BCIS (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Government, H.M.: Low Carbon Construction (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hammond, G., Jones, C.: Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) version 1.5, p. 136 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1680/ener.2011.164.4.206CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amalka Nawarathna
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zaid Alwan
    • 1
  • Barry Gledson
    • 1
  • Nirodha Fernando
    • 2
  1. 1.Northumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.University of SalfordSalfordUK

Personalised recommendations