Role of Microbial Genomics in Plant Health Protection and Soil Health Maintenance

  • Arpna Ratnakar
  • Shikha


Global increase in agricultural production from a gradually decreasing and degrading land resource has placed immense pressure on the agroecosystems. Soil microbial populations are engaged in a web of interactions affecting plant fitness as well as soil quality. They are engaged in core activities ensuring the productivity as well as stability encompassing agricultural systems and natural ecosystems.

Agricultural sustainability can be improved through optimal use and management of soil fertility along with physical properties, which altogether depends upon soil biological processes and biodiversity. Soil fertility in addition to other properties, e.g., texture, aeration, available moisture, etc., known to support agricultural production has been found to depend on the biomass, metabolites, and activities of microorganisms. Hence, an understanding of microbial diversity perspectives in agricultural scenario is not only important but also useful to land upon measures which may perform as indicators of soil quality and plant productivity.

Soil microbial community structure consists of two main drivers, viz., plant type and soil type. At times the soil, while in others the plant type, happens to be the key factor determining soil microbial diversity which is intricately related to the microbial interactions in soil, interactions between microorganisms and soil in addition to microorganisms and plants. Soil microorganisms mediate the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nutrients, and trace elements by catalyzing redox reactions which moderate atmospheric composition, water chemistry, and the bioavailability of elements in soil.

Positive plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the core determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Plants provide specific habitats to the microbial communities, broadly categorized under the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. A symbiotic relationship exists between plants and associated microorganisms as well as high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants to disease resistance, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness.


Microbes Soil Plant Restoration AM 



UGC-RGNF (Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship – F1–17.1/2014–15/RGNF-2014-15-SC-UTT-70916), awarded to one of the authors (Arpna Ratnakar), is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Abdul S, Mansoor A, Abdul K, Singh P, Suman K, Alok K, Abdul S, Kumar A, Darokar MP, Shukla A K, Padmapriya T, Yaseen M, Dhawan PO, Zaim M, Nair V, Poovappallivadakethil A K (2007) Novel strain of Bacillus as a bioinoculant. United States. Patent Application No. US 20070092491 A1Google Scholar
  2. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2009) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers. Microb Ecol 58:921–929. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2010) Increased plant uptake of nitrogen from N-15-depleted fertilizer using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Appl. Soil Ecol 46:54–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amann RI, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev 59:143–169PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Amtmann A, Troufflard S, Armengaud P (2008) Theeffect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiol Plant 133:682–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armengaud P, Breitling R, Amtmann A (2004) The potassium-dependent transcriptome of Arabidopsis reveals a prominent role of jasmonic acid in nutrient signaling. Plant Physiol 136:2556–2576PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bais HP, Park SW, Weir TL, Callaway RM, Vivanco JM (2004) How plants communicate using the underground information superhighway. Trends Plant Sci 9(1):26–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakker MG, Bradeen JM, Kinkel LL (2013a) Effects of plant host species and plant community richness on streptomycete community structure. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 83:596–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakker MG, Otto-Hanson L, Lange AJ, Bradeen JM, Kinkel LL (2013b) Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high-diversity plant communities. Soil Biol Biochem 65:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barea JM, Toro M, Orozco MO, Campos E, Azcn R (2002) The application of isotopic (32P and 15N) dilution techniques to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium to improve the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphate for legume crops. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Basak B, Biswas D (2012) Modification of waste mica for alternative source of potassium: evaluation of potassium release in soil from waste mica treated with potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB). LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany. ISBN-13:978-3659298424Google Scholar
  12. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(4):1327–1350. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonkowski M, Villenave C, Griffiths B (2009) Rhizosphere fauna: the functional and structural diversity of intimate interactions of soil fauna with plant roots. Plant Soil 321(1):213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowen GD, Rovira AD (1999) The rhizosphere and its management to improve plant growth. Adv Agron 66:1–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Broeckling CD, Broz AK, Bergelson J, Manter DK, Vivanco JM (2008) Root exudates regulate soil fungal community composition and diversity. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(3):738–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Broz AK, Broeckling CD, De-la-Pena C, Lewis MR, Greene E, Callaway RM, Lloyd W, Sumner LW, Vivanco JM (2010) Plant neighbor identity influences plant biochemistry and physiology related to defense. BMC Plant Biol 10:115PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell R, Greaves MP (1990) Anatomy and community structure of the rhizosphere. In: Lynch JM (ed) The rhizosphere. Wiley, England, pp 11–34Google Scholar
  18. Chithrashree UAC, Nayaka SC, Reddy MS, Srinivas C (2011) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria mediate induced systemic resistance in rice against bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. Biol Control 59:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cummings SP (2009) The application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in low input and organic cultivation of graminaceous crops; potential and problems. Environ Biotechnol 5:43–50Google Scholar
  20. De Vleesschauwer D, Hofte M (2009) Rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance. In: Van Loon LC (ed) Advances in botanical research, vol 51. Elsevier, Burlington, pp 223–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Devarapalli P, Kumavath RN (2015) Metagenomics—a technological drift in bioremediation. Adv Bioremediation Wastewater Pollut Soil: 73–91. Naofumi Shiomi, IntechOpen. Google Scholar
  22. Dick RP (1997) Soil enzyme activities as integrative indicators of soil health. In: biological indicators of soil health, 1st edn. CAB International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Dimkpa C, Weinand T, Asch F (2009) Plant-rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. Plant Cell Environ 32:1682–1694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Drakare S (2002) Competition between picoplanktonic cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria along crossed gradients of glucose and phosphate. Microb Ecol 44:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gersani M, Brown JS, O’Brien EE, Maina GM, Abramsky Z (2001) Tragedy of the commons as a result of root competition. J Ecol 89:660–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gianfreda L, Bollag JM (1996) Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on enzyme activity in soil. In: Soil biochemistry, 1st edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Gillan DC, Roosa S, Kunath B, Billon G, Wattiez R (2014) The long-term adaptation of bacterial communities in metal-contaminated sediments: a metaproteogenomic study. Environ Microbiol 17(6):1991–2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gillespie DE, Brady SF, Bettermann AD, Cianciotto NP, Liles MR, Rondon MR, Clardy J, Goodman RM, Handelsman J (2002) Isolation of antibiotics turbomycin a and B from a metagenomic library of soil microbial DNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 68(9):4301–4306PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gryndler M (2000) Interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with other soil organisms. In: Kapulnik Y, Douds DD Jr (eds) Arbuscular mycorrhizas: physiology and function. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 239–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guinazu LB, Andres JA, Del Papa MF, Pistorio M, Rosas SB (2009) Response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to single and mixed inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Biol Fertil Soils 46:185–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta KMS (2012) Population growth, Malthusian concern and sustainable development -some key policies and demographic issues in India. GJHSS 12(3):20–31Google Scholar
  32. Handelsman J (2004) Metagenomics: application of genomics to uncultured microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68:669–685PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartmann A, Schmid M, Van Tuinen D, Berg G (2009) Plant-driven selection of microbes. Plant Soil 321:235–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hazen TC, Dubinsky EA, DeSantis TZ, Andersen GL, Piceno YM, Singh N, Jansson JK, Probst A, Borglin SE, Fortney JL, Stringfellow WT, Bill M, Conrad ME, Tom LM, Chavarria KL, Alusi TR, Lamendella R, Joyner DC, Spier C, Baelum J, Auer M, Zemla ML, Chakraborty R, Sonnenthal EL, D’haeseleer P, Holman HYN, Osman S, Lu ZM, Van Nostrand JD, Deng Y, Zhou JZ, Mason OU (2010) Deep-sea oil plume enriches indige-nous oil-degrading bacteria. Science 330:204–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hazen TC, Rocha AM, Techtmann SM (2013) Advances in monitoring environmental microbes. Curr Opin Biotechnol 24:526–533. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hentschel U, Usher KM, Taylor MW (2006) Marine sponges as microbial fermenters. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 55:167–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirankumar R, Jagadeesh KS, Krishnaraj PU, Patil MS (2008) Enhanced growth promotion of tomato and nutrient uptake by plant growth promoting rhizobacterial isolates in presence of tobacco mosaic virus pathogen. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21:309–311Google Scholar
  38. Kistner C, Winzer T, Pitzschke A, Mulder L, Sato S, Kaneko T, Tabata S, Sandal N, Stougaard J, Webb KJ, Szczyglowski K, Parniske M (2005) Seven Lotus japonicus genes required for transcriptional reprogramming of the root during fungal and bacterial symbiosis. Plant Cell 17:2217–2229PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knietsch A, Waschkowitz T, Bowien S, Henne A, Daniel R (2003) Construction and screening of metagenomic libraries derived from enrichment cultures: generation of a gene bank for genes conferring alcohol oxidoreductase activity on Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1408–1416PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koshiba T, Kobayashi M, Matoh T (2009) Boron nutrition of tobacco BY-2 cells. V. Oxidative damage is the major cause of cell death induced by boron deprivation. Plant Cell Physiol 50:26–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leigh GJ (2002) Nitrogen fixation at the millennium. Elsevier Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Li J, Dai X, Liu T, Zhao PX (2012) LegumeIP: an integrative database for comparative genomics and transcriptomics of model legumes. Nucleic Acids Res 40:D1221–D1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Little AEF, Robinson CJ, Peterson SB, Raffa KF, Handelsman J (2008) Rules of engagement: interspecies interactions that regulate microbial communities. Annu Rev Microbiol 62:375–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu D, Anderson NA, Kinkel LL (1996) Selection and characterization of strains of Streptomyces suppressive to the potato scab pathogen. Can J Microbiol 42:487–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lopez-Arredondo DL, Leyva-Gonzalez MA, Gonzalez-Morales SI, Lopez-Bucio J, Herrera-Estrella L (2014) Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops. Annu Rev Plant Biol 65:95–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lorenz P, Liebeton K, Niehaus F, Eck J (2002) Screening for novel enzymes for biocatalytic processes: accessing the metagenome as a resource of novel functional sequence space. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13(6):572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lucas JA (2011) Advances in plant disease and pest management. J Agric Sci 149:91–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Majerník A, Gottschalk G, Daniel R (2001) Screening of environmental DNA libraries for the presence of genes conferring Na+ (Li+)/H+ antiporter activity on Escherichia coli: characterization of the recovered genes and the corresponding gene products. J Bacteriol 183:6645–6653PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mantelin S, Touraine B (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrate availability: impacts on root development and nitrate uptake. J Exp Bot 55:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maphosa F, Van Passel MWJ, De Vos WM, Smidt H (2012) Metagenome analysis reveals yet unexplored reductive dechlorinating potential of Dehalobacter sp. E1 growing in coculture with Sedimentibacter sp. Environ Microbiol Rep 4(6):604–616. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Bahadur I (2014) Potassium solubilization by bacterial strain in waste mica. Bangladesh J Bot 43(2):235–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miao V, Davies J (2009) Metagenomics and antibiotic discovery from uncultivated bacteria. In: Epstein SS (ed) Uncultivated microorganisms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 217–236Google Scholar
  53. Mohammadi K (2012) Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: occurrence, mechanisms and their role in crop production. Resourc Environ 2(1):80–85Google Scholar
  54. Muller DB, Vogel C, Bai Y, Vorholt JA (2016) The plant microbiota: systems-level insights and perspectives. In: Bonini NM (ed) Annual review of genetics, vol 50. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, pp 211–234Google Scholar
  55. Murphy GP, Dudley SA (2009) Kin recognition: competition and cooperation in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Am J Bot 96:1990–1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nazir A (2016) Review on metagenomics and its applications. Imp J Interdiscip Res 2(3):277–286Google Scholar
  57. Nielsen MN, Winding A (2002) Microorganisms as indicators of soil health. NERI Technical Report No. 388. National Environmental Research Institute, Ministry of the Environment, Denmark URL:
  58. Nihorimbere V, Ongena M, Smargiassi M, Thonart P (2011) Beneficialeffect of the rhizosphere microbial community for plant growthand health. Biotechnol Agron Soc 15:327–337Google Scholar
  59. Nobandegani MBJ, Saud HM, Yun WM (2015) Phylogenetic relationship of phosphate solubilizing bacteria according to 16S rRNA genes. Biomed Res Int :201379Google Scholar
  60. Pate JS, Verboom WH, Galloway PD (2001) Co-occurrence of Proteaceae, laterite and related oligotrophic soils: coincidental associations or causative inter-relationships. Aust J Bot 49:529–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Persello-Cartieaux F, Nussaume L, Robaglia C (2003) Tales from the underground: molecular plant-rhizobacteria interactions. Plant Cell Environ 26:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Piel J (2011) Approaches to capturing and designing biologically active small molecules produced by uncultured microbes. Annu Rev Microbiol 65:431–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Preston CM, Wu KY, Molinski TF, DeLong EF (1996) A psychrophilic crenarchaeon inhabits a marine sponge: Cenarchaeum symbiosum gen. nov., sp. nov. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:6241–6246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reddy PP (2014) Potential role of PGPR in agriculture. In: Reddy PP (ed) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria for horticultural crop protection. Springer, India, pp 17–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robe P, Nalin R, Capellano C, Vogel TM, Simonet P (2003) Extraction of DNA from soil. Eur J Soil Biol 39(4):183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers SL, McClure N (2003) In: Head IM, Singleton I, Milner MG (eds) In bioremediation:a criticial review. Horizon Scientific Press, Wymondham, pp 27–29Google Scholar
  67. Sato S, Nakamura Y, Kaneko T, Asamizu E, Kato T, Nakao M, Sasamoto S, Watanabe S, Ono A, Kawashima K, Fujishiro T, Katoh M, Kohara M, Kishida Y, Minami C, Nakayama S, Nakazaki N, Shimizu Y, Shinpo S, Takahashi C, Wada T, Yamada M, Ohmido N, Hayashi M, Fukui F, Baba T, Nakamichi T, Mori H, Tabata S (2008) Genome structure of the legume, Lotus japonicus. DNA Res 15:227–239PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schlatter DC, Bakker MG, Bradeen JM, Kinkel LL (2015) Plant species, plant community richness, and microbial interactions structure bacterial communities in soil. Ecology 96(1):134–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Selvakumar G, Panneerselvam P, Ganeshamurthy AN, Maheshwari DK (2012) Bacterial mediated alleviation of abiotic stress in crops. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: stress management. Springer, New York, pp 205–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Servin-Garciduenas LE, Rogel MA, Ormeno-Orrillo E, Delgado-Salinas A, Martinez-Romero J, Sánchez F, Martínez-Romero E (2012) Genome sequence of Rhizobium sp. strain CCGE510, a symbiont isolated from nodules of the endangered wild bean Phaseolus albescens. J Bacteriol 194:6310–6311PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shaharoona B, Naveed M, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2008) Fertilizer dependent efficiency of pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:147–155. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shokralla S, Spall JL, Gibson JF, Hajibabaei M (2012) Next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental DNA research. Mol Ecol 21:1794–1805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh B, Satyanarayana T (2011) Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 17:93–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh J, Behal A, Singla N, Joshi A, Birbian N, Singh S, Bali V, Batra N (2009) Metagenomics: concept, methodology, ecological inference andrecent advances. Biotechnol J 4:480–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tetard-Jones C, Kertesz MA, Gallois P, Preziosi RF (2007) Genotype-by-genotype interactions modified by a third species in a plant-insect system. Am Nat 170:492–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tilman D, Socolow R, Foley JA, Hill J, Larson E, Lynd L, Pacala S, Reilly J, Searchinger T, Somerville C, Williams R (2009) Energy beneficial biofuels—the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science 325:270–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Van der Heijden MGA, Bardgett RD, Van Straalen NM (2008) Theunseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity andproductivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 11:296–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vance CP (2001) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition: plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiol 127:390–397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Venturi V (2006) Regulation of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:274–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vurukonda SSKP, Giovanardi D, Stefani E (2018) Plant growth promoting and biocontrol activity of Streptomyces spp. as endophytes. Int J Mol Sci 19(4):952 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang M, Shen Q, Xu G, Guo S (2014) New insight into the strategy for nitrogen metabolism in plant cells. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 310:1–37. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Wu C, Kim HK, Van Wezel GP, Choi YH (2015) Metabolomics in the natural products field–a gateway to novel antibiotics. Drug Discov Today Technol 13:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xiao K, Kinkel LL, Samac DA (2002) Biological control of Phytophthora root rots on alfalfa and soybean with Streptomyces. Biol Control 23:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Xie X, Zhang H, Pare PW (2009) Sustained growth promotion in arabidopsis with long-term exposure to the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis(GB03). Plant Signal Behav 4:948–953PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yuan WM, Crawford DL (1995) Characterization of Streptomyces lydicus WYE108 as potential biocontrol agent against fungal root and seed rots. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3119–3128PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Ahemad M, Oves M (2009) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56:263–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zengler K, Toledo G, Rappe M, Elkins J, Mathur EJ, Short JM, Keller M (2002) Cultivating the uncultured. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:15681–15686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang H, Murzello C, Sun Y, Kim X, MiS R, Jeter RM, Zak JC, Scot Dowd E, Pare PW (2010) Choline and osmotic-stress tolerance induced in Arabidopsis by the soil microbe Bacillus subtilis (GB03). Mol Plant Microbiol Interact 23:1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhou AF, He ZL, Qin YJ, Lu ZM, Deng Y, Tu QC, Hemme CL, Van Nostrand JD, Wu LY, Hazen TC, Arkin AP, Zhou JZ (2013) StressChip as a high-throughput tool for assessing microbial community responses to environmental stresses. Environ Sci Technol 47:9841–9849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arpna Ratnakar
    • 1
  • Shikha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations