Advertisement

Ductile Mode Cutting Mechanism

  • Kiu LiuEmail author
  • Hao Wang
  • Xinquan Zhang
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

In this chapter, ductile mode cutting mechanism of brittle material is analysed theoretically and systematically. The coexisting crack propagation and dislocation extension in the chip formation zone are examined based on an analysis of cutting geometry and forces in the cutting zone, both on Taylor’s dislocation hardening theory and strain gradient plasticity theory. Ductile chip formation is a result of large compressive stress and shear stress in cutting zone, of which shields the growth of pre-existing flaws by enhancing material’s yield strength and suppressing its stress intensity factor KI. Large compressive stress in cutting zone is obtained by satisfying two conditions: (a) very small undeformed chip thickness, and (b) undeformed chip thickness being smaller than tool cutting edge radius. Experimental verification shows that thrust force Ft is much larger than cutting force Fc in cutting of brittle material, which indicates that a large compressive stress is generated in cutting zone to enhance material’s yield strength by dislocation hardening and strain gradient, and shields the growth of pre-existing flaws by suppressing its stress intensity factor KI. Thereafter, ductile mode cutting of brittle material is achieved when two conditions are satisfied, such that work material is able to undertake a large cutting stress in cutting zone without fracturing.

References

  1. 1.
    Liu K (2002) Ductile cutting for rapid prototyping of tungsten carbide tools. NUS Ph.D. thesis, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ngoi BKA, Sreejith PS (2000) Ductile regime finish machining – a review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 16:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neo KW, Kumar AS, Rahman M (2012) A review on the current research trends in ductile regime machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:465–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antwi EK, Liu K, Wang H (2018) A review on ductile mode cutting of brittle materials. Front Mech Eng 13:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hahn GT, Reid CN, Gilbert A (1963) The dislocation dynamics of plastic flow. In: Proceedings of the international production engineering research conference, Pittsburgh, USA, pp. 293–301Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rice JR, Thomsom R (1974) Ductile versus brittle behaviour of crystals. Philos Mag 29:73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michot G, de Oliveira MAL, Champier G (1999) A model of dislocation multiplication at a crack tip influencing on the brittle to ductile transition. Mater Sci Eng A 272:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartmaier A, Gumbsch P (1999) The brittle-to-ductile transition and dislocation activity at crack tips. J Comput-Aided Mater Des 6:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomsom RM, Sinclair JE (1982) Mechanics of cracks screened by dislocation. Acta Metall 30:1325–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ohr SM (1985) An electron microscope study of crack tip deformation and its impact on the dislocation theory of fracture. Mater Sci Eng 72:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferney BD, Hsia KJ (1999) The influence of multiple slip systems on the brittle-ductile transition in silicon. Mater Sci Eng A 272:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Samuels J, Roberts SG, Hirsch PB (1988) The brittle-to-ductile transition in silicon. Mater Sci Eng A 105(106):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ebrahimi F, Shrivastava S (1997) Crack initiation and propagation in brittle-to-ductile transition regime of NiAl single crystals. Mater Sci Eng A 239–240:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Imayev VM, Imayev RM, Salishchev GA (2000) On two stages of brittle-to-ductile transition in TiAl intermetallic. Intermet 8:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen W, Ravichandran G (2000) Failure mode transition in ceramics under dynamic multiaxial compression. Int J Fract 101:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blackley WS, Scattergood RO (1994) Chip topography for ductile-regime machining of germanium. ASME Trans J Eng Ind 116:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu K, Li XP (2001) Modelling of ductile cutting of tungsten carbide. Trans NAMRI/SME 29:251–258Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu K, Li XP (2001) Ductile cutting of tungsten carbide. J Mater Process Technol 113:348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Broek D (1984) Elementary engineering fracture mechanics. Martinus Nijihoff Publishers, Springer, Netherlands, The HaguezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ewalds HL, Wanhill RJH (1989) Fracture mechanics. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jayatilaka A de S (1979) Fracture of engineering brittle materials. Appl Sci Lond:19–115Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meyers MA (1994) Dynamic behaviour of materials. Wiley, New York, pp 488–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Irwin GR (1957) Analysis of stress and strain near the end of a crack traversing a plate. ASME Trans J Appl Mech 24:361–364Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kendall K (1976) Interfacial cracking of a composite. J Mater Sci 11:1267–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pisarenko GS, Krasowsky AY, Vainshtock VA et al (1987) The combined micro- and macro-fracture mechanics approach to engineering problems of strength. Eng Fract Mech 28:539–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weertman J (1978) Fracture mechanics: a unified view for Griffith-Irwin-Orowan cracks. Acta Metall 26:1731–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pook LP (1985) The fatigue crack direction and threshold behavior of mild steel under mixed mode I and III loading. Int J Fatigue 7:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Topper TH, Yu MT (1985) The effect of overloads on threshold and crack closure. Int J Fatigue 7:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strenkowski JS, Hiatt GD (1990) A technique for predicting the ductile regime in single point diamond turning of brittle materials. Fundam Issues Mach: Am Soc Mech Eng 43:67–80Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smith A, Nurse A, Graham G et al (1996) Ultrasonic cutting – a fracture mechanics model. Ultrasonics 34:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu K, Li XP, Liang SY (2007) The mechanism of ductile chip formation in cutting of brittle materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 33:875–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cottrell AH (1953) Dislocations and plastic flow in crystals. The Clarendon Press, Oxford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kovacs I, Zsoldos L (1973) Dislocations and plastic deformation. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 252–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fleck NA, Hutchinson JW (1997) Strain gradient plasticity. In: Hutchinson JW, Wu TY (eds) Advances in applied mechanics, vol 33. Academic Press, New York, pp 295–236Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gao H, Huang Y, Nix WD et al (1999) Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity – I. Theory. J Mech Phys Solids 47:1239–1263MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Huang Y, Gao H, Nix WD et al (2000) Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity – II Analysis. J Mech Phys Solids 48:99–128MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shi MX, Huang Y, Hwang KC (2000) Plastic flow localization in mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity. Int J Mech Sci 42:2115–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bifano T, Bierden PA (1997) Fixed-abrasive grinding of brittle hard disk substrates. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37:935–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore Institute of Manufacturing TechnologySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations