Prognostic Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Koh Rui Qi
  • Pek Mi Xue Michelle
  • Tan Min-HanEmail author
Conference paper


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects approximately half a million patients worldwide and is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer death in the United States owing to the lack of effective treatment options for advanced disease [1]. Numerous lines of clinical and histopathologic evidence suggest that HCC is a heterogeneous disease, but a coherent molecular explanation for this heterogeneity has yet to be reported [2]. Due to the phenotypic and molecular diversity of HCC, it is a challenge to determine a patient’s prognosis [3]. It would be ideal to increase monitoring of patients with poor prognosis. Thus the inability to accurately predict prognosis leads to excessive or insufficient time spent following patients, resulting in unnecessary anxiety and cost for patients, and inefficient allocation of resources for hospitals.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koh Rui Qi
    • 1
  • Pek Mi Xue Michelle
    • 1
  • Tan Min-Han
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Bioengineering and NanotechnologySingaporeSingapore

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