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Emerging Epigenetic Targets and Their Implications in Cancer Therapy

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Abstract

Epigenetics refers to alterations in the chromatin that regulate gene expression without changing the nucleotide sequence of DNA. An “epigenetic code” constituted by DNA methylation and different posttranslational modifications of histone proteins is crucial for the regulation of gene expression status in various cells. Maintenance of cellular identity and differentiation in a specific developmental context is regulated through maintenance of the chromatin structure of the cells. This process involves both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. There is emerging evidence that defects in epigenetic regulation are often observed in human cancer. The reversibility of epigenetic modifications and an improved understanding of epigenetic aberrations in the etiology of cancer promise identification of novel drug targets and development of epigenetic-based therapeutic avenues for cancer. Many such compounds that target chromatin-associated proteins and proteins involved in epigenetic regulation are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. In this chapter, we have summarized the discoveries of epigenetic-based therapies for cancer and highlighted the advancement in this field that provides a new future perspective.

Keywords

Epigenetic regulation DNA methylation Posttranslational histone modification and microRNA/miRNA 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial CentreHomi Bhabha National InstituteNavi MumbaiIndia

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