Bio-based Polymeric Conductive Materials for Advanced Applications

  • Gourhari Chakraborty
  • Vimal KatiyarEmail author
Part of the Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials book series (MHFNN)


Polymer-based materials have become the obvious alternative to conventional materials in all the areas. Polymers are utilized for extensive applications, where the conductive material application is considered as one of the potential areas. Bio-based polymers are environment friendly degradable polymers which not only reduce the solid disposal from electrical and electronics wastes but also maintains the property required for targeted application in a better way. The conductive application of bio-based polymers includes insulators, capacitor, electrochemical sensor, biosensor, biomedical, energy storage etc., where the properties of neat biopolymers need to be improved via developing bio-based polymeric composites and blends. In this regards, the composite fabrication with conductive fillers or blending with conductive polymers such as polyaniline or polypyrrole can provide conductive nature. Biodegradable polymers including poly (lactic acid), polycaprolactone, cellulose, and chitosan are utilized for different targeted applications. This present chapter discusses the different current researches based on biodegradable polymers targeting conductive material application. Moreover, the different modification techniques and possible application area of the bio-based polymers are also detailed.


Bio-based polymers Conductive application Conductive composites Conductive blends 


  1. 1.
    Flory PJ (1953) Principles of polymer chemistry. Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chanda M (2006) Introduction to polymer science and chemistry: a problem-solving approach. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Silvestre C, Duraccio D, Cimmino S (2011) Food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials. Prog Polym Sci 36:1766–1782. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reddy MM, Vivekanandhan S, Misra M, Bhatia SK, Mohanty AK (2013) Biobased plastics and bionanocomposites: current status and future opportunities. Prog Polym Sci 38:1653–1689. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chakraborty G, Valapa RB, Pugazhenthi G, Katiyar V (2018) Investigating the properties of poly (lactic acid)/exfoliated graphene based nanocomposites fabricated by versatile coating approach. Int J Biol Macromol 113:1080–1091. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakraborty G, Gupta A, Pugazhenthi G, Katiyar V (2018) Facile dispersion of exfoliated graphene/PLA nanocomposites via in situ polycondensation with a melt extrusion process and its rheological studies. J Appl Polym Sci 135:46476. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Babu RP, O’connor K, Seeram R (2013) Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends. Prog Biomater 2:8. Scholar
  8. 8.
    McKeon KD, Lewis A, Freeman JW (2010) Electrospun poly (D, L-lactide) and polyaniline scaffold characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 115:1566–1572. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feig VR, Tran H, Bao Z (2018) Biodegradable polymeric materials in degradable electronic devices. ACS Cent Sci 4:337–348. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lim CS, Teoh KH, Liew CW, Ramesh S (2014) Electric double layer capacitor based on activated carbon electrode and biodegradable composite polymer electrolyte. Ionics 20:251–258. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sabzi M, Jiang L, Liu F, Ghasemi I, Atai M (2013) Graphene nanoplatelets as poly (lactic acid) modifier: linear rheological behavior and electrical conductivity. J Mater Chem A 1:8253–8261. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nampoothiri KM, Nair NR, John RP (2010) An overview of the recent developments in polylactide (PLA) research. Bioresour Technol 101:8493–8501. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sudhakar YN, Selvakumar M (2012) Lithium perchlorate doped plasticized chitosan and starch blend as biodegradable polymer electrolyte for supercapacitors. Electrochim Acta 78:398–405. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shi Z, Gao X, Ullah MW, Li S, Wang Q, Yang G (2016) Electroconductive natural polymer-based hydrogels. Biomaterials 111:40–54. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Llorens E, Armelin E, del Mar Pérez-Madrigal M, del Valle L, Alemán C, Puiggalí J (2013) Nanomembranes and nanofibers from biodegradable conducting polymers. Polymers 5:1115–1157. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khalid WEFW, Heng LY, Arip MNM (2018) Surface modification of cellulose nanomaterial for urea biosensor application. Sains Malaysiana 47:941–949. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shen Y, Jing T, Ren W, Zhang J, Jiang ZG, Yu ZZ, Dasari A (2012) Chemical and thermal reduction of graphene oxide and its electrically conductive polylactic acid nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 72:1430–1435. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Araujo P, Ferreira CRPC, Araujo E (2011) Biodegradable conductive composites of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and polyaniline nanofibers: preparation, characterization and radiolytic effects. Composites 19:20. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chakraborty G, Pugazhenthi G, Katiyar V (2018) Exfoliated graphene-dispersed poly (lactic acid)-based nanocomposite sensors for ethanol detection. Polym Bull, 1–20. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pötschke P, Andres T, Villmow T, Pegel S, Brünig H, Kobashi K, Häussler L (2010) Liquid sensing properties of fibres prepared by melt spinning from poly (lactic acid) containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Compos Sci Technol 70:343–349. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Armelin E, Gomes AL, Pérez-Madrigal MM, Puiggalí J, Franco L, del Valle LJ, Alemán C (2012) Biodegradable free-standing nanomembranes of conducting polymer: polyester blends as bioactive platforms for tissue engineering. J Mater Chem 22:585–594. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rajeswari N, Selvasekarapandian S, Prabu M, Karthikeyan S, Sanjeeviraja C (2013) Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio-degradable polymers. Bull Mater Sci 36:333–339. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang L, Zhuang X, Hu J, Lang L, Zhang P, Wang Y, Jing X (2008) Synthesis of biodegradable and electroactive multiblock polylactide and aniline pentamer copolymer for tissue engineering applications. Biomacromol 9:850–858. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Durgam H, Sapp S, Deister C, Khaing Z, Chang E, Luebben S, Schmidt CE (2010) Novel degradable co-polymers of polypyrrole support cell proliferation and enhance neurite out-growth with electrical stimulation. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 21:1265–1282. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu H, Holzwarth JM, Yan Y, Xu P, Zheng H, Yin Y, Ma PX (2014) Conductive PPY/PDLLA conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. Biomaterials 35:225–235. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liew CW, Ramesh S, Arof AK (2014) Good prospect of ionic liquid based-poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors with excellent electrical, electrochemical and thermal properties. Int J Hydrogen Energy 39:2953–2963. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Selvakumar M, Bhat DK (2008) LiClO4 doped cellulose acetate as biodegradable polymer electrolyte for supercapacitors. J Appl Polym Sci 110:594–602. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Woo HJ, Liew CW, Majid SR, Arof AK (2014) Poly (ε-caprolactone)-based polymer electrolyte for electrical double-layer capacitors. High Perform Polym 26:637–640. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Valapa RB, Pugazhenthi G, Katiyar V (2015) Effect of graphene content on the properties of poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites. RSC Adv 5:28410–28423. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qi H, Mäder E, Liu J (2013) Unique water sensors based on carbon nanotube–cellulose composites. Sens Actuators B Chem 185:225–230. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kobashi K, Villmow T, Andres T, Pötschke P (2008) Liquid sensing of melt-processed poly (lactic acid)/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite films. Sens Actuators B Chem 134:787–795. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mai F, Habibi Y, Raquez JM, Dubois P, Feller JF, Peijs T, Bilotti E (2013) Poly (lactic acid)/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with integrated degradation sensing. Polymer 54:6818–6823. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumar B, Castro M, Feller JF (2012) Poly (lactic acid)–multi-wall carbon nanotube conductive biopolymer nanocomposite vapour sensors. Sens Actuators B Chem 161:621–628. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu H, Wang J, Kang X, Wang C, Wang D, Liu J, Lin Y (2009) Glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase in platinum nanoparticles/graphene/chitosan nanocomposite film. Talanta 80:403–406. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shan C, Yang H, Han D, Zhang Q, Ivaska A, Niu L (2010) Graphene/AuNPs/chitosan nanocomposites film for glucose biosensing. Biosens Bioelectron 25:1070–1074. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tsai YC, Chen SY, Lee CA (2008) Amperometric cholesterol biosensors based on carbon nanotube–chitosan–platinum–cholesterol oxidase nanobiocomposite. Sens Actuators B Chem 135:96–101. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Han HS, You JM, Jeong H, Jeon S (2013) Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly (lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing. Appl Surf Sci 284:438–445. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mohanapriya S, Rambabu G, Bhat SD, Raj V (2018) Pectin based nanocomposite membranes as green electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cells. Arab J Chem. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vaghari H, Jafarizadeh-Malmiri H, Berenjian A, Anarjan N (2013) Recent advances in application of chitosan in fuel cells. Sustain Chem Process 1:16. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rahman NFA, Loh KS, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AAH, Lim KL (2016) Synthesis and characterisation of chitosan-cellulose biocomposite membrane for fuel cell applications. Malaysian J Analyt Sci 20:885–891. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mohammadifar M, Yazgan I, Zhang J, Kariuki V, Sadik OA, Choi S (2018) Green biobatteries: hybrid paper-polymer microbial fuel cells. Adv Sustain Syst 2:1800041. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guo B, Glavas L, Albertsson AC (2013) Biodegradable and electrically conducting polymers for biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 38:1263–1286. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sharifian I (2011) Conductive and biodegradable polyaniline/starch blends and their composites with polystyrene. Iran Polym J 20:319–328Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiNorth GuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations