World Hunger and Poverty

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
  • Pramod Kumar Rout
  • Shyambhavee Behera


Hunger is a sense of feeling to intake some edible things, orally, to get relief from discomfort caused due to empty stomach. Hunger is the biological signal when the level of blood sugar is too low. Food and nutrients reach in proteins, carbohydrate and essential elements help to fill up stomach and curb hunger pangs. Biologically, hunger is a sensation that represents the body’s requirement for eating some quality food. Two hormones named ghrelin and leptin regulate hunger and satiety in the body. Leptin otherwise known as satiety hormone inhibits hunger by signalling the central nervous system. World hunger refers to hunger aggregated to the global level and which can be expressed in terms of food security and malnutrition. The USDA defines food insecurity as a state in which “consistent access to adequate food is limited by a lack of money and other resources at times during the year”. In short terms, food insecurities are “struggle to avoid hunger”, “hungry or at risk of hunger” and “hungry or faced by the threat of hunger”. Malnutrition is a condition resulting from insufficient intake of biologically necessary nutrients. About 795 million people in the world are lacking of adequate food to lead a normal healthy life. It means one in nine people on earth is suffering from hunger. The most of the hunger victimised people live in developing countries or least developing countries. About 12.9% of world population is suffering from undernourished.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
    • 1
  • Pramod Kumar Rout
    • 2
  • Shyambhavee Behera
    • 3
  1. 1.Advanced Centre for BiotechnologyMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia
  2. 2.Genetics and Breeding DivisionICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, MakhdoomMathuraIndia
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine, University of DelhiUniversity College of Medical Sciences, GTB HospitalNew DelhiIndia

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