Water, Energy and Food Security: Pillars for Zero Hunger

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
  • Pramod Kumar Rout
  • Shyambhavee Behera


The earth-like habitable planet needs water, energy and food for the survival of life. Water is the primary source of survival of living beings. Thus, water security concerns the most vital factor for the sustainability of life. Life means activity, and for activity energy is inescapable. Energy conservation plays a complementary role in survival of life, as water. Thus, security of water and energy at different geographical locations is in foremost priority to meet the challenge of global population, which is supposed to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, with the trend of water demand projected to increase by 55%, energy demand supposed to enhance by 80% and food demand projected to increase by 60%. Thus, Rio+20 declaration emphasises on water, energy and food security which may ultimately be helpful while integrating economic, social and environmental factors to eradicate hunger and malnutrition crisis, at global level. Water-energy-food nexus is prevailing all around us, but is ignored by the public, governance and policymakers. The water-energy-food nexus can be best cited while explaining significance of water for all sort of activities. For example, energy is needed to treat (purify), distribute (pump) and boil water for thermal electric generation and running of hydropower, and water is an essential component of our food systems through the irrigation of crops and animal consumption. But, the nexus is not restricted to microlevel; it can be widely implemented in projects like land-use planning, human health management and environment protection. The drive for nexus is just not due to interdependent relationships between water, energy and food but also depends on the dynamic nature of climate like rise and fall of temperature, pressure, rainfall and natural calamity and even factors like the socio-economical condition prevailing in a state and the nature of governance. These three sectors (water, energy and food security nexus) are key driving forces to eradicate hunger and to bring sustainable development.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
    • 1
  • Pramod Kumar Rout
    • 2
  • Shyambhavee Behera
    • 3
  1. 1.Advanced Centre for BiotechnologyMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia
  2. 2.Genetics and Breeding DivisionICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, MakhdoomMathuraIndia
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine, University of DelhiUniversity College of Medical Sciences, GTB HospitalNew DelhiIndia

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