Improved DWT-SVD-Based Medical Image Watermarking Through Hamming Code and Chaotic Encryption

  • S. Thakur
  • A. K. SinghEmail author
  • Basant Kumar
  • S. P. Ghrera
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 587)


This paper presents an efficient watermarking technique to enhance the performance of DWT-SVD-based approach. The method uses well-known error-correcting code (ECC) and chaotic encryption to reduce the channel noise distortion and improve the security of the technique, respectively. In the proposed method, the cover image is transformed by DWT and the sub-bands are selected for embedding the watermarks. Subsequently, the selected sub-bands are further transformed by SVD. The more robust watermark “patient report” and less robust watermark “patient medical image” is embedded into singular values of the selected DWT sub-bands. The use of transform domain techniques along with hamming code ensures that the approach offers more robustness and reliability. Inclusion of chaos-based encryption carries twofold benefits such as obscuring the watermarked content and strengthening the overall security of the projected scheme. The proposed technique offers a significant value of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), normalized correlation (NC), bit error rate (BER), number of pixel change rate (NPCR), and unified average changing intensity (UCAI) in presence of major attacks. The performance comparisons of our technique with a similar approach show that the proposed technique is superior for nine considered attacks.


DWT SVD Image watermarking Error-correcting code Chaotic encryption PSNR NC BER NPCR UACI 


  1. 1.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Singh, S.K., Ghrera, S.P., Mohan, A.: Multiple watermarking technique for securing online social network contents using back propagation neural network. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 86, 926–939 (2018). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Priya, S., Varatharajan, R., Manogaran, G., Sundarasekar, R., Kumar, P.M.: Paillier homomorphic cryptosystem with poker shuffling transformation based water marking method for the secured transmission of digital medical images. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput., 1–11 (2018). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lakshmi, C., Thenmozhi, K., Rayappan, J.B., Amirtharajan, R.: Encryption and watermark-treated medical image against hacking disease—an immune convention in spatial and frequency domains. Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 159, 11–21 (2018). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Singh, G., Mohan, A. (eds.) Medical Image Watermarking: Techniques and Applications. Book series on Multimedia Systems and Applications. Springer (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh, A.K., Dave, M., Mohan, A.: Wavelet based image watermarking: futuristic concepts in information security. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. A 84(3), 345–359 (2014). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chao, H.M., Hsu, C.M., Miaou, S.G.: A data-hiding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records. IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 6(1), 46–53 (2002). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thakur, S., Singh, A.K., Ghrera, S.P., Elhoseny, M.: Multi-layer security of medical data through watermarking and chaotic encryption for tele-health applications. Multimed. Tools Appl., 1–14 (2018). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., Ghrera, S.P., Mohan, A.: Digital image watermarking: techniques and emerging applications. In: Handbook of Research on Modern Cryptographic Solutions for Computer and Cyber Security, USA, IGI Global, pp. 246–272 (2016).
  9. 9.
    Wu, Y., Noonan, J.P., Yang, G., Jin, H.: Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map. J. Electron. Imaging 21(1) (2012). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abd El-Samie, F.E., Ahmed, H.E.H., Elashry, I.F., Shahieen, M.H., Faragallah, O.S., El-Rabaie, E.-S.M., Alshebeili, S.A.: Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective. CRC Press (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bakthula, R., Shivani, S., Agarwal, S.: Self authenticating medical X-ray images for telemedicine applications. Multimed. Tools Appl., 1–18 (2017). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tan, C.K., Ng, J.C., Xu, X., Poh, C.L., Guan, Y.L., Sheah, K.: Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability. J. Digit. Imaging 24(3), 528–540 (2011). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eswaraiah, R., Reddy, E.S.: Medical image watermarking technique for accurate tamper detection in ROI and exact recovery of ROI. Int. J. Telemed. Appl., 13 (2014). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Memon, N.A., Chaudhry, A., Ahmad, M., Keerio, Z.A.: Hybrid watermarking of medical images for ROI authentication and recovery. Int. J. Comput. Math. 88(10), 2057–2071 (2011). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu, J.H., Chang, R.F., Chen, C.J., Wang, C.L., Kuo, T.H., Moon, W.K., Chen, D.R.: Tamper detection and recovery for medical images using near-lossless information hiding technique. J. Digit. Imaging 21(1), 59–76 (2008). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., Mohan, A.: Robust and imperceptible dual watermarking for telemedicine applications. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 80(4), 1415–1433 (2015). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tripathi, S., Ramesh, N., Bernito, A., Neeraj, K.J.: A DWT based dual image watermarking technique for authenticity and watermark protection. An Int. J. (SIPIJ) 1(2), 33–45 (2010). Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mahajan, L.H., Patil, S.A.: Image watermarking scheme using SVD. Int. J. Adv. Res. Sci. Eng. 2(6), 69–77 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thakkar, F.N., Srivastava, V.K.: A blind medical image watermarking: DWT-SVD based robust and secure approach for telemedicine applications. Multimed. Tools Appl. 3(76), 3669–3697 (2016). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parah, S.A., Sheikh, J.A., Ahad, F., Loan, N.A., Bhat, G.M.: Information hiding in medical images: a robust medical image watermarking system for e-healthcare. Multimed. Tools Appl. 8(76), 10599–10633 (2015). Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh, A.K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., Mohan, A.: Multiple watermarking on medical images using selective discrete wavelet transform coefficients. J. Med. Imaging Health Inform. 5(3), 607–614 (2015). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Amri, H., Khalfallah, A., Gargouri, M., Nebhani, N., Lapayre, J.C., Bouhlel, M.S.: Medical image compression approach based on image resizing, digital watermarking and lossless compression. J. Signal Process. Syst. 87(2), 203–214 (2017). Scholar
  23. 23.
    MedPix online medical image database.
  24. 24.
    Wu, Y., Noonan, J.P., Agaian, S.: NPCR and UACI randomness tests for image encryption. Cyber J. Multidiscip. J. Sci. Technol. JSAT, 31–38 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Thakur
    • 1
  • A. K. Singh
    • 2
    Email author
  • Basant Kumar
    • 3
  • S. P. Ghrera
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CSEJUITSolanIndia
  2. 2.Department of CSENIT PatnaPatnaIndia
  3. 3.Department of ECEMNNIT AllahabadAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations