Advertisement

Management of Migrating Population with Tuberculosis

  • Sheng-yuan Liu
  • Li-juan Wu
  • Xu-jun Guo
  • Juan He
  • Yi-ting Luo
  • Wei-guo Tan
Chapter

Abstract

It has been proposed by the WHO to end TB in the year of 2035, which means that the incidence of TB across the world should decrease to 100 per million by the end of 2035. The goal proposed by the WHO indicates that the global incidence of TB should be at a low level and attempts should be made by the countries with a low incidence of TB to further decrease the incidence of TB. TB should be preliminarily eliminated (10 per million), followed by gradual elimination (1 per million). The realization of the great goals is necessarily based on scientific breakthroughs and consistent international and national TB control. Along with the increasing mobility of populations around the world, the treatment and prevention of TB in migrants will definitely be the key work in countries with low and high incidence of TB.

References

  1. 1.
    Li MH. Definition and categorization of international migrants and migration in China. Overseas Chin History Stud. 2009;2:1–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schoorl J, Heering L, Esveldt I, et al. Push and pull factors of international migration: a comparative report, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Hear, Nicholas And Brubaker, Rebecca And Bessa, et al. Managing mobility for human development: the growing salience of mixed migration; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhugra D. Migration, distress and cultural identity. Br Yearbook Int Law. 2004;69:129–41.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Organization for Migration. 2015 global migration trends: IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre. 2016.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Labour Organization. ILO global estimates on migrant workers. Geneva: ILO; 2015.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The globalization of crime: a transnational organized crime threat assessment. New York: UN; 2010.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gushulak BD, MacPherson DW. The basic principles of migration health: population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2006;3:3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization. Use of high burden country lists for TB by WHO in the post-2015 era. 2016; WHO/HTM/TB/2015.29. Geneva: WHO; 2015. http://www.who.int/tb/Publications/global_report/high_tb_burdencountrylists2016-2020.pdf?ua¼1. Accessed March 2017.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lienhardt C. From exposure to disease: the role of environmental factors in susceptibility to and development of tuberculosis. Epidemiol Rev. 2001;23(2):288–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malmusi D, Borrell C, Benach J. Migration-related health inequalities: showing the complex interactions between gender, social class and place of origin. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(9):1610–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abarca Tomás B, Pell C, Bueno Cavanillas A, et al. Tuberculosis in migrant populations. A systematic review of the qualitative literature. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(12):1–12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heldal E, Kuyvenhoven JV, Wares F, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in undocumented migrants in low- or intermediate-incidence countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(8):878–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berk ML, Schur CL. The effect of fear on access to care among undocumented Latino immigrants. J Immigr Health. 2001;3(3):151–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mili D. Migration and healthcare: access to healthcare services by migrants settled in Shivaji Nagar Slum of Mumbai, India. Health. 2011;2:82–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamper-Jorgensen Z, Andersen AB, Kok-Jensen A, et al. Migrant tuberculosis: the extent of transmission in a low burden country. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:60.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Vries G, Gerritsen RF, van Burg JL, et al. Tuberculosis among asylum-seekers in the Netherlands: a descriptive study among the two largest groups of asylum-seekers. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2016;160:D51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cain KP, Mac KW, Castro KG, et al. No man is an island: reducing diagnostic delays in undocumented foreign-born persons is needed to decrease the risk of tuberculosis transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(10):1284–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diana L, Schneider D, Mark N, et al. Tuberculosis control among people in US immigration and customs enforcement custody. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(1):9–14.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tschirhart N, Nosten F, Foster AM. Access to free or low-costtuberculosis treatment for migrants and refugees along the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak province, Thailand. Int J Equity Health. 2016;15:100.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kimbrough W, Saliba V, Dahab M, et al. The burden of tuberculosis in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(12):950–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eisenberg JR, Lidji M, Gelfer E, et al. Same but different: tuberculosis treatment and care among migrants from different countries of origin in Israel. Lung. 2014;192(6):863–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    International Organization for Migration (IOM). Global migration trends; 2015. Available from https://publications.iom.int/system/files/global/migration/trends/2015/factsheet.pdf. Accessed 5 Oct 2017.
  24. 24.
    Aldridge RW, Zenner D, White PJ, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for active tuberculosis in migrants screened before entry to the UK: a population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(8):962–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dasgupta K, Menzies D. Cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis control strategies among immigrants and refugees. Eur Respir J. 2005;25(6):1107–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schmit KM, Wansaula Z, Pratt R, et al. Tuberculosis---United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;66(11):289–94.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    European Centre for Disease prevention and Control (ECDC)/WHO Regional Office for Europe tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe, 2015. Stockholm: ECDC. 2015.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lonnroth K, Mor Z, Erkens C, et al. Tuberculosis in migrants in low-incidence countries: epidemiology and intervention entry points. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(6):624–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2016. 2016.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salinas JL, Mindra G, Haddad MB, et al. Leveling of tuberculosis incidence - United States, 2013-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(11):273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tulloch O, Machingura F, Melamed C. Health, migration and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Bern: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; 2016.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uplekar M, Weil D, Lonnroth K. WHO’s new end TB strategy. Lancet. 2015;385:1799–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    World Health Organization. Global strategy and targets for tuberculosis prevention, care and control after 2015. WHA67/2014/REC/1(WHA67.1). Geneva: WHO; 2014.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lonnroth K, Migliori GB, Abubakar I, et al. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low incidence countries. Eur Res. 2015;45:928–52.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    World Health Organization. Systematic screening for active tuberculosis: principles and recommendations. WHO/HTM/TB/2013.04. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    World Health Organization. Guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis infection. WHO/HTM/TB/2015.01. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dara M, Gushulak BD, Posey DL, et al. The history and evolution of immigration medical screening for tuberculosis. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 2013;11(2):137–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Migrant Clinicians Network. Health network. Austin, TX, USA: MCN; 2016. http://www.migrantclinician.org/services/network.html. Accessed March 2017.
  39. 39.
    Tschampl C A, Cynthia A, Zuroweste E, et al. Cost-effectiveness of bridge case management for a mobile population undergoing treatment for tuberculosis infection. In: 19th annual meeting of the international union against tuberculosis and lung disease, North American Region, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 27 February 2015.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    WHO Representative Office Papua New Guinea. Joint external review of the national tuberculosis programme of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: WHO; 2014. http://www.wpro.who.int/papuanewguinea/mediacentre/who_review_tb_program/en/. Accessed March 2017.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    George SA, Ko CA, Kirchner HL, et al. The role of chest radiographs and tuberculin skin tests in tuberculosis screening of internationally adopted children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(5):387–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Walls HL, Vearey J, Modisenyane M, et al. Understanding healthcare and population mobility in southern Africa: The case of South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2015;106(1):14–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    National Bureau of Statistics in China. Statistical Bulletin on the National Economic and Social Development in 2017. Beijing: National Bureau of Statistics in China, 2018 (2018-2-28). http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201802/t20180228_1585631.html.
  44. 44.
    Department of migrating Population Service and Management, National Population and Family Planning Commission of P. R. China. 2017 report of migrating population development in China. Beijing: Chinese Population Press; 2017.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Technical Guidance Team for the 5th National Epidemiological Sampling Survey for Tuberculosis & Managing Office of the 5th National Epidemiological Sampling Survey for Tuberculosis. The report of the 5th national epidemiological sampling survey in 2010. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2012;8:485–508.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tobe RG, Xu L, Song P, et al. The rural-to-urban migrant population in China: gloomy prospects for tuberculosis control. Biosci Trends. 2011;5(6):226–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li XF, Huang PS. Treatment and management of migrating population with tuberculosis in Huicheng district of Huizhou. Chin J Trop Med. 2015;15(3):304–7.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yang C, Lu L, Warren JL, et al. Internal migration and transmission dynamics of tuberculosis in Shanghai, China: an epidemiological, spatial, genomic analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(7):788–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ding SH, Shao WR, Wan QL, et al. Treatment and management of patients with TB in migrating population and local residents in Huai’an during 2009 to 2014: a comparative study. Pract Prevent Med. 2016;10:1196–8.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    An J, Gao M, Chu N, et al. Transregional movement of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in north China: an underlying threat to tuberculosis control. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29727.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Managing Office of the Global Funding Program for TB Control in China. The stage II planning in the 5th round of global funding for TB control in migrating population in China. Beijing: Management Office of the Global Funding Program for TB Control in China; 2008.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Center for Disease Control of China. Notice on the Technical Procedures in Trans-regional Management of Patients with Tuberculosis. Beijing: Center for Disease Control; 2009. http://www.chinatb.org/AnnoucementDetail.aspx?id=120.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu XQ, Li J, Jiang SW. Performance assessment on the global funding program for TB control in migrating population in China. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2013;35(10):768–72.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Management Office of the Global Funding Program for TB Control in China. Stage I planning for the 5th round of the global funding program for TB control in migrating population in China (the 2nd edition). Beijing: Management Office of the Global Funding Program for TB Control in China; 2007.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chen L, Zhong Q, Jiang L. Performance analysis on trans-regional management of migrating population with TB in four counties/districts of Guangdong province. Chin J Clin Pract. 2011;8:2299–303.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Li JW, Zhong Q, Yang YZ, et al. Performance analysis on trans-regional management in migrating population with TB and the countermeasures. Guangdong Med. 2010;15:1932–4.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lin SF, Dai ZS, Wei SZ, et al. Treatment and management of migrating population with TB in Fujian province. Chin J Trop Med. 1370;2011(11):1334–5.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Li J, Jiang SW, Huang F, et al. Implemented procedures in trans-regional management of patients with TB in four provinces. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2012;5:310–4.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ma L, Chen YG. Trans-regional management of patients with TB in Urumqi. Mod Prevent Med. 2014;4:667–9.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Guan HY, Tan WG, Yang YZ, et al. Implementation of trans-regional management of migrating population with TB in Shenzhen. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2015;5:498–503.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Guo XJ, Wang J. Survey on non-arrival of transfer-out patients with TB in migrating population and its intervention. J Trop Med. 2016;16(7):951–5.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Guo XJ, Wang J, Zhu MM. Trans-regional management of patients with TB in migrating population in Nanshan district of Shenzhen: analysis of 6 years data. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2015;37(5):514–9.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yang N, Wang DX, He JG, et al. Detection and treatment of patients with TB in migrating population in Sichuan province. Dis Surveill. 2017;32(7):563–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhang Y, Ye JJ, Yang CF, et al. Trans-regional management and treatment of patients with TB in migrating population in Hubei province. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2016;38(5):405–10.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Guo XJ, Wang J, Zhong T, Lu JJ. Factors analysis on re-registry of transfer-in patients with TB in migrating population against the regulation. J Trop Med. 2011;11(9):1069–72.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guo XJ, Wang J, Zhu MM, et al. Performance assessment of trans-regional management of patients with TB in migrating population. J Trop Med. 2012;12(9):1154–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhao MG, Guo L, Zhao AG, et al. Trans-regional transfer-out patients with TB in migrating population in Baoan district of Shenzhen. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2011;33(7):442–4.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen SH, Wang XM, Zhong JM, et al. Trans-regional management of patients with TB in migrating population. Chin J Prevent Med. 2014;15(3):230–4.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhou Y, Zhu LG, Zhu YF, et al. Trans-provincial management and treatment of patients with TB. Chin J Dis Contr. 2012;16(10):874–6.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Guan HY, Yang YZ, Tan WG, Lv JW, Wu QF. Performance assessment on trans-regional management of patients with TB in migrating population in Shenzhen. Chin J Trop Med. 2011;11(10):1192–4.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wang YX, Zhao MG, Guo L, Zhao AG, Huang Z, Ouyang X. Factor analysis on arrival of transfer-out patients with TB in Baoan district of Shenzhen. Chin J Pract Med. 2015;15:282–4.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhu M, Wang J, Dib HH, et al. Enhancing the management of cross-regional transfer of migrating tuberculosis cases by active follow-up and communication. Eur J Pub Health. 2012;22(4):577–82.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    van Hest R, Story A. Tuberculosis control in homeless persons in European Union: more than words alone. Pneumologia. 2009;58(2):84–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Segal-Maurer S. Tuberculosis in enclosed populations. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5(2):TNMI7-0041-2017.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mindra G, Wortham JM, Haddad MB, et al. Tuberculosis outbreaks in the United States, 2009-2015. Public Health Rep. 2017;132(2):157–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dias M, Gaio R, Sousa P, et al. Tuberculosis among the homeless: should we change the strategy? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(3):327–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Heuvelings CC, de Vries SG, Greve PF, et al. Effectiveness of interventions for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in hard-to-reach populations in countries of low and medium tuberculosis incidence: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(5):e144–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cooper C, Levay P, Lorenc T, et al. A population search filter for hard-to-reach populations increased search efficiency for a systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2014;67(5):554–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    US homeless people numbers rise for first time in seven years. BBC 2017.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hammond J. Homelessness in China. GB Times 2012.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee Y. CityU NewsCentre - CityU study finds main reason for homelessness is housing affordability. 2014. https://newscentre.cityu.edu.hk/media/news/2014/03/31/cityu-study-finds-main-reason-homelessness-housing-affordability.
  82. 82.
    Slockers MT, Nusselder WJ, Rietjens J, et al. Homeless adults’ most frequent cause of death is suicide or murder. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2018;162:D2626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tornero Patricio S, Fernandez Ajuria A, Charris Castro L. Characteristics of hospitalizations of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2016;90:E12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bamrah S, Yelk Woodruff RS, Powell K, et al. Tuberculosis among the homeless, United States, 1994-2010. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17(11):1414–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang L, Zhang Z, Yan Q, et al. Diagnostic dilemma of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults with severe mental illness in Beijing, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anderson C, Anderson SR, Maguire H, et al. Tuberculosis in London: the convergence of clinical and social complexity. Eur Respir J. 2016;48(4):1233–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. Guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Romaszko J, Cymes I, Draganska E, et al. Mortality among the homeless: causes and meteorological relationships. PLoS One. 2017;12(12):e0189938.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stock D. National position statement for the management of latent tuberculosis infection. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2017;41(3):E204–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Isler MA, Rivest P, Mason J, et al. Screening employees of services for homeless individuals in Montreal for tuberculosis infection. J Infect Public Health. 2013;6(3):209–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jimenez-Fuentes MA, Auge CM, Gomez MN, et al. Screening for active tuberculosis in high-risk groups. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18(12):1459–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kmietowicz Z. NICE advises screening for TB in hostels and prisons to reduce UK cases. BMJ. 2012;344:e2309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Linas BP, Wong AY, Freedberg KA, et al. Priorities for screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(5):590–601.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Janssens JP, Wuillemin T, Adler D, et al. Screening for tuberculosis in an urban shelter for homeless in Switzerland: a prospective study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):347.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    He XX. Tuberculosis in homeless population in London: an effective model for screening and treatment of tuberculosis. J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000;1:40–6.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Worrell MC, Kramer M, Yamin A, et al. Use of activity space in a tuberculosis outbreak: bringing homeless persons into spatial analyses. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(1):ofw280.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Xu M, Yang HD, Zhang LX, et al. Spread of tuberculosis at multiple places by homeless patient with TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;3:128–34.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mugwagwa T, Stagg HR, Abubakar I, et al. Comparing different technologies for active TB case-finding among the homeless: a transmission-dynamic modelling study. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1433.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sandul AL, Nwana N, Holcombe JM, et al. High rate of treatment completion in program settings with 12-dose weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) for latent mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(7):1085–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Connors WJ, Hussen SA, Holland DP, et al. Homeless shelter context and tuberculosis illness experiences during a large outbreak in Atlanta, Georgia. Publ Health Action. 2017;7(3):224–30.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    WHO, Health topics Health promotion. [2016-6-20]. http://www.who.int/topics/health_promotion/en/.
  102. 102.
    Hu XG, Cao CX, Li YF. Application of health promotion in the strategy of Healthy China. Med Soc. 2017;30(4):64–7.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wan JJ, Zhong H. Characteristics of, reasons for and strategies towards migrating population in recent decade: comparison of data from the 5th and 6th national census of population. Consult Policy. 2014;1:64–8.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zheng YT, Ji Y, Chang C. Development and characteristics of health promotion policies in migrating population in China. Chin J Health-care Manage. 2017;34(4):310–2.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wan LY. Brochure for drug-resistant tuberculosis control. Beijing: Peking Union Medical College Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bureau of Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health. Technical guideline for implementation of TB control planning in China (edition of 2008). Beijing: Peking Union Medical College Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Li SQ. Strategies for TB control in migrating population. Chin J Rural Health. 2017;4:38.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wang H. Health education for TB control. Basic-level Med Forum. 2016;20(13):1805.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang LX, Cheng SM, Chen W. Brochure for tuberculosis control in schools. Beijing: Military Medical Science Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Aldridge RW, Hayward AC, Hemming S, et al. High prevalence of latent tuberculosis and bloodborne virus infection in a homeless population. Thorax. 2018;73(6):557–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheng-yuan Liu
    • 1
  • Li-juan Wu
    • 1
  • Xu-jun Guo
    • 1
  • Juan He
    • 1
  • Yi-ting Luo
    • 2
  • Wei-guo Tan
    • 3
  1. 1.Shenzhen Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease ControlShenzhenChina
  2. 2.Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease ControlShenzhenChina
  3. 3.Department of TuberculosisThe Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease ControlShenzhenChina

Personalised recommendations