Advertisement

Psychopharmacology and Psychotherapy Research

  • Kiwon Kim
  • Hong Jin JeonEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1192)

Abstract

With vigorous researches related to novel treatment in psychiatric field, paradigm shift is emerging with its design and assessment. Comprehension of the psychiatric phenomenon expanded beyond disease model, with dimensional approach. Assessment of patients’ clinical state includes subjective reports related to problematic symptoms, functional change, and quality of life. They also include objective findings collected from mobile e-wearable monitoring system and advanced neuroimaging modalities. Novel treatment protocols are not just limited to pharmacology itself or psychotherapy itself, but the approach is integrated with stratification; pharmacological treatment enhanced by cognitive behavioral management and psychotherapeutic intervention has been emerged and studied for its impact. Numerous studies were conducted to understand placebo response and to differentiate this phenomenon with novel treatments. Trials to draw good adherence to research protocol with good compliance to treatment in real are strengthened by integrated approach, so-called psychopharmacology. With these paradigm shifts observed from recent researches, it is promising for great advance in quality of life and our mental health.

Keywords

Clinical design Assessment Digitalization Integration Placebo 

References

  1. 1.
    Feinstein AR, Horwitz RI. Problems in the “evidence” of “evidence-based medicine”. Am J Med. 1997;103(6):529–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tomba E, Rafanelli C, Grandi S, Guidi J, Fava GA. Clinical configuration of cyclothymic disturbances. J Affect Disord. 2012;139(3):244–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lavori PW, Dawson R. Adaptive treatment strategies in chronic disease. Annu Rev Med. 2008;59:443–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tomba E, Bech P. Clinimetrics and clinical psychometrics: macro- and micro-analysis. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81(6):333–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moller HJ. Standardised rating scales in psychiatry: methodological basis, their possibilities and limitations and descriptions of important rating scales. World J Biol Psychiatry: Off J World Fed Soc Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(1):6–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castelnuovo G. New and old adventures of clinical health psychology in the twenty-first century: standing on the shoulders of giants. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1214.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harmer CJ, Cowen PJ, Goodwin GM. Efficacy markers in depression. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(9):1148–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dutcher JM, Creswell JD. Behavioral interventions in health neuroscience. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018;1428(1):51–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malaspina D, Walsh-Messinger J, Gaebel W, Smith LM, Gorun A, Prudent V, et al. Negative symptoms, past and present: a historical perspective and moving to DSM-5. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24(5):710–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bobes J, Arango C, Garcia-Garcia M, Rejas J, Group CSC. Prevalence of negative symptoms in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with antipsychotics in routine clinical practice: findings from the CLAMORS study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(3):280–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linden D. Biological psychiatry: time for new paradigms. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci. 2013;202(3):166–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    19th Workshop of the international stroke genetics consortium, April 28–29, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: 2016.001 MRI-defined cerebrovascular genomics-the CHARGE consortium. Neurol Genet. 2017;3(1 Suppl 1):S2–S11.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schumann G, Loth E, Banaschewski T, Barbot A, Barker G, Buchel C, et al. The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15(12):1128–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thompson PM, Andreassen OA, Arias-Vasquez A, Bearden CE, Boedhoe PS, Brouwer RM, et al. ENIGMA and the individual: predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide. Neuroimage. 2017;145(Pt B):389–408.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kirov G, Pocklington AJ, Holmans P, Ivanov D, Ikeda M, Ruderfer D, et al. De novo CNV analysis implicates specific abnormalities of postsynaptic signalling complexes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17(2):142–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Uhlhaas PJ, Liddle P, Linden DEJ, Nobre AC, Singh KD, Gross J. Magnetoencephalography as a tool in psychiatric research: current status and perspective. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017;2(3):235–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    IsHak WW, Mirocha J, Christensen S, Wu F, Kwock R, Behjat J, et al. Patient-reported outcomes of quality of life, functioning, and depressive symptom severity in major depressive disorder comorbid with panic disorder before and after SSRI treatment in the star*d trial. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(8):707–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scarr E, Millan MJ, Bahn S, Bertolino A, Turck CW, Kapur S, et al. Biomarkers for psychiatry: the journey from fantasy to fact, a report of the 2013 CINP think tank. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;18(10):pyv042.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eichler HG, Bloechl-Daum B, Brasseur D, Breckenridge A, Leufkens H, Raine J, et al. The risks of risk aversion in drug regulation. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12(12):907–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Possemato K, Johnson EM, Beehler GP, Shepardson RL, King P, Vair CL, et al. Patient outcomes associated with primary care behavioral health services: a systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2018;53:1–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Csipke E, Williams P, Rose D, Koeser L, McCrone P, Wykes T, et al. Following the Francis report: investigating patient experience of mental health in-patient care. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci. 2016;209(1):35–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathie E, Wythe H, Munday D, Rhodes G, Vicary P, Millac P, et al. Regional working in the east of England: using the UK national standards for public involvement. Res Involv Engagem. 2018;4:48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Howe A. Principles of patient and public involvement in primary care research, applied to mental health research. A keynote paper from the EGPRN autumn conference 2017 in Dublin. Eur J Gen Pract. 2018;24(1):167–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Swildens WE, Visser E, Bahler M, Bruggeman R, Delespaul P, van der Gaag M, et al. Functional recovery of individuals with serious mental illnesses: development and testing of a new short instrument for routine outcome monitoring. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2018;41(4):341–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wojtalik JA, Smith MJ, Keshavan MS, Eack SM. A Systematic and meta-analytic review of neural correlates of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2017;43(6):1329–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Zwart PL, Jeronimus BF, de Jonge P. Empirical evidence for definitions of episode, remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence in depression: a systematic review. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2018:1–19.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gambino M, Pavlo A, Ross DA. Recovery in mind: perspectives from postgraduate psychiatric trainees. Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(3):481–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schawo S, Bouwmans C, van der Schee E, Hendriks V, Brouwer W, Hakkaart L. The search for relevant outcome measures for cost-utility analysis of systemic family interventions in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior: a systematic literature review. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):179.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bateman DR, Srinivas B, Emmett TW, Schleyer TK, Holden RJ, Hendrie HC, et al. Categorizing health outcomes and efficacy of mHealth apps for persons with cognitive impairment: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(8):e301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meerwijk EL, Parekh A, Oquendo MA, Allen IE, Franck LS, Lee KA. Direct versus indirect psychosocial and behavioural interventions to prevent suicide and suicide attempts: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(6):544–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andrews G, Basu A, Cuijpers P, Craske MG, McEvoy P, English CL, et al. Computer therapy for the anxiety and depression disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: an updated meta-analysis. J Anxiety Disord. 2018;55:70–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lei H, Nahum-Shani I, Lynch K, Oslin D, Murphy SA. A “SMART” design for building individualized treatment sequences. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2012;8:21–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Stewart JW, Warden D, et al. Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(11):1905–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gelenberg AJ, Thase ME, Meyer RE, Goodwin FK, Katz MM, Kraemer HC, et al. The history and current state of antidepressant clinical trial design: a call to action for proof-of-concept studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(10):1513–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prisciandaro JJ, Tolliver BK. An item response theory evaluation of the young mania rating scale and the montgomery-asberg depression rating scale in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). J Affect Disord. 2016;205:73–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pereira Junior Bde S, Tortella G, Lafer B, Nunes P, Bensenor IM, Lotufo PA, et al. The bipolar depression electrical treatment trial (BETTER): design, rationale, and objectives of a randomized, sham-controlled trial and data from the pilot study phase. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:684025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Farmer C, Thurm A, Grant P. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research. Drugs. 2013;73(4):303–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Owen DR, Rupprecht R, Nutt DJ. Stratified medicine in psychiatry: a worrying example or new opportunity in the treatment of anxiety? J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(2):119–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fernandes BS, Williams LM, Steiner J, Leboyer M, Carvalho AF, Berk M. The new field of ‘precision psychiatry’. BMC Med. 2017;15(1):80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schumann G, Binder EB, Holte A, de Kloet ER, Oedegaard KJ, Robbins TW, et al. Stratified medicine for mental disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24(1):5–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Millan MJ. On ‘polypharmacy’ and multi-target agents, complementary strategies for improving the treatment of depression: a comparative appraisal. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17(7):1009–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nikolic K, Mavridis L, Djikic T, Vucicevic J, Agbaba D, Yelekci K, et al. Drug design for CNS diseases: polypharmacological profiling of compounds using cheminformatic, 3D-QSAR and virtual screening methodologies. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:265.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wong EH, Tarazi FI, Shahid M. The effectiveness of multi-target agents in schizophrenia and mood disorders: relevance of receptor signature to clinical action. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;126(2):173–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ballon J, Stroup TS. Polypharmacy for schizophrenia. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26(2):208–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Duman RS, Voleti B. Signaling pathways underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of depression: novel mechanisms for rapid-acting agents. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35(1):47–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duman RS. Neurobiology of stress, depression, and rapid acting antidepressants: remodeling synaptic connections. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(4):291–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhou Y, Peng Y, Fang J, Sun W, Zhang G, Zhen L, et al. Effect of low-dose ketamine on perioperative depressive symptoms in patients undergoing intracranial tumor resection (PASSION): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):463.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Krystal JH, Abdallah CG, Averill LA, Kelmendi B, Harpaz-Rotem I, Sanacora G, et al. Synaptic loss and the pathophysiology of PTSD: implications for ketamine as a prototype novel therapeutic. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017;19(10):74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kim YK, Choi J, Park SC. A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model in schizophrenia. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(4): pii: E734..PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Miyashiro KY, Bell TJ, Sul JY, Eberwine J. Subcellular neuropharmacology: the importance of intracellular targeting. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(4):203–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arlt AD, Nestoriuc Y, Rief W. Why current drug adherence programs fail: addressing psychological risk factors of nonadherence. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2017;30(5):326–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sajatovic M, Ramirez LF, Fuentes-Casiano E, Cage J, Tatsuoka C, Aebi ME, et al. A 6-month prospective trial of a personalized behavioral intervention+ long-acting injectable antipsychotic in individuals with schizophrenia at risk of treatment nonadherence and homelessness. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017;37(6):702–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pakpour AH, Modabbernia A, Lin CY, Saffari M, Ahmadzad Asl M, Webb TL. Promoting medication adherence among patients with bipolar disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention. Psychol Med. 2017;47(14):2528–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Averous P, Charbonnier E, Lagouanelle-Simeoni MC, Prosperi A, Dany L. Illness perceptions and adherence in bipolar disorder: an exploratory study. Compr Psychiatry. 2018;80:109–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tessier A, Boyer L, Husky M, Bayle F, Llorca PM, Misdrahi D. Medication adherence in schizophrenia: the role of insight, therapeutic alliance and perceived trauma associated with psychiatric care. Psychiatry Res. 2017;257:315–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sirey JA, Banerjee S, Marino P, Bruce ML, Halkett A, Turnwald M, et al. Adherence to depression treatment in primary care: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(11):1129–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baeza-Velasco C, Olie E, Beziat S, Guillaume S, Courtet P. Determinants of suboptimal medication adherence in patients with a major depressive episode. Depress Anxiety. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22852. [Epub ahead of print].PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Etain B, Scott J, Cochet B, Bellivier F, Boudebesse C, Drancourt N, et al. A study of the real-world effectiveness of group psychoeducation for bipolar disorders: is change in illness perception a key mediator of benefit? J Affect Disord. 2018;227:713–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Olfson M, Kroenke K, Wang S, Blanco C. Trends in office-based mental health care provided by psychiatrists and primary care physicians. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75(3):247–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Olfson M, Blanco C, Wang S, Laje G, Correll CU. National trends in the mental health care of children, adolescents, and adults by office-based physicians. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(1):81–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wolpert M, Dalzell K, Ullman R, Garland L, Cortina M, Hayes D, et al. Strategies not accompanied by a mental health professional to address anxiety and depression in children and young people: a scoping review of range and a systematic review of effectiveness. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019;6(1):46–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Davies EB, Morriss R, Glazebrook C. Computer-delivered and web-based interventions to improve depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being of university students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(5):e130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Simon J, Budge K, Price J, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR. Remote mood monitoring for adults with bipolar disorder: an explorative study of compliance and impact on mental health service use and costs. Eur Psychiatry. 2017;45:14–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Niendam TA, Tully LM, Iosif AM, Kumar D, Nye KE, Denton JC, et al. Enhancing early psychosis treatment using smartphone technology: a longitudinal feasibility and validity study. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;96:239–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rootes-Murdy K, Glazer KL, Van Wert MJ, Mondimore FM, Zandi PP. Mobile technology for medication adherence in people with mood disorders: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2018;227:613–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Depp CA, Ceglowski J, Wang VC, Yaghouti F, Mausbach BT, Thompson WK, et al. Augmenting psychoeducation with a mobile intervention for bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2015;174:23–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hennemann S, Farnsteiner S, Sander L. Internet- and mobile-based aftercare and relapse prevention in mental disorders: a systematic review and recommendations for future research. Internet Interv. 2018;14:1–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Myin-Germeys I, Kasanova Z, Vaessen T, Vachon H, Kirtley O, Viechtbauer W, et al. Experience sampling methodology in mental health research: new insights and technical developments. World Psychiatry. 2018;17(2):123–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rotondi AJ, Anderson CM, Haas GL, Eack SM, Spring MB, Ganguli R, et al. Web-based psychoeducational intervention for persons with schizophrenia and their supporters: one-year outcomes. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(11):1099–105.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hatch A, Docherty JP, Carpenter D, Ross R, Weiden PJ. Expert consensus survey on medication adherence in psychiatric patients and use of a digital medicine system. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(7):e803–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zubieta JK, Stohler CS. Neurobiological mechanisms of placebo responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1156:198–210.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pecina M, Zubieta JK. Molecular mechanisms of placebo responses in humans. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20(4):416–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gourion D, Mouchabac S. Placebo effect: clinical, biological and therapeutical involvements in depression. Encephale. 2016;42(1 Suppl 1):1S24–30.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Furukawa TA, Cipriani A, Atkinson LZ, Leucht S, Ogawa Y, Takeshima N, et al. Placebo response rates in antidepressant trials: a systematic review of published and unpublished double-blind randomised controlled studies. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(11):1059–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Khan A, Fahl Mar K, Faucett J, Khan Schilling S, Brown WA. Has the rising placebo response impacted antidepressant clinical trial outcome? Data from the US food and drug administration 1987–2013. World Psychiatry. 2017;16(2):181–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Furukawa TA, Cipriani A, Leucht S, Atkinson LZ, Ogawa Y, Takeshima N, et al. Is placebo response in antidepressant trials rising or not? A reanalysis of datasets to conclude this long-lasting controversy. Evid Based Ment Health. 2018;21(1):1–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Weimer K, Colloca L, Enck P. Placebo eff ects in psychiatry: mediators and moderators. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2(3):246–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Geers AL, Miller FG. Understanding and translating the knowledge about placebo effects: the contribution of psychology. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2014;27(5):326–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dodd S, Dean OM, Vian J, Berk M. A review of the theoretical and biological understanding of the nocebo and placebo phenomena. Clin Ther. 2017;39(3):469–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Colagiuri B, Schenk LA, Kessler MD, Dorsey SG, Colloca L. The placebo effect: from concepts to genes. Neuroscience. 2015;307:171–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Blease CR. Psychotherapy and placebos: manifesto for conceptual clarity. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:379.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fava M, Evins AE, Dorer DJ, Schoenfeld DA. The problem of the placebo response in clinical trials for psychiatric disorders: culprits, possible remedies, and a novel study design approach. Psychother Psychosom. 2003;72(3):115–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tamura RN, Huang X. An examination of the efficiency of the sequential parallel design in psychiatric clinical trials. Clin Trials. 2007;4(4):309–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Silverman RK, Ivanova A. Sample size re-estimation and other midcourse adjustments with sequential parallel comparison design. J Biopharm Stat. 2017;27(3):416–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Muller U, Fletcher PC, Steinberg H. The origin of pharmacopsychology: Emil Kraepelin’s experiments in Leipzig, Dorpat and Heidelberg (1882–1892). Psychopharmacology. 2006;184(2):131–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guidi J, Fava GA. Emerging trends in clinical psychology. Riv Psichiatr. 2014;49(6):227.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bech P. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;120(5):400–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Richardson WS, Doster LM. Comorbidity and multimorbidity need to be placed in the context of a framework of risk, responsiveness, and vulnerability. J Clin Epidemiol. 2014;67(3):244–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryVeteran Health Service Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryDepression Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations