Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizospheric Microbes for Remediation of Saline Soils

  • Tahmish Fatima
  • Naveen Kumar Arora
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 9)


Salinity is responsible for lowering the quality of soil and reducing the agricultural productivity, continuously increasing the area of marginal lands across the globe. Among the biological solutions, application of rhizobacteria has emerged as the effective strategy for promoting plant growth and enhancing the fertility of saline soil. Various direct and indirect plant growth-promoting attributes including phytohormones, exopolysaccharides, osmolytes, antioxidants, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production help to combat the negative impact of salinity on plants. Indirect mechanisms such as synthesis of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes help in inhibiting the growth of phytopathogens in saline conditions. These beneficial microbes also improve the structure and quality of soil, rejuvenating their productivity index. Henceforth, the identification and selection of halotolerant microbes and studying the mechanisms involved in salt tolerance would provide a better future in designing amelioration strategies for saline soils.


Salinity Rhizospheric microbes PGPR Rhizoremediation 


  1. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Asghar HN, Asghar M (2011) Inducing salt tolerance in mung bean through co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant-growthpromoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase. Can J Microbiol 57:578–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhter SM, Hossain SJ, Hossain SA, Datta RK (2012) Isolation and characterization of salinity tolerant Azotobacter sp. Green J Biol Sci 2(3):043–051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amara U, Khalid R, Hayat R (2015) Soil bacteria and phytohormones for sustainable crop production. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacterial metabolites in sustainable agroecosystem, vol 12. Springer, Cham, pp 87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson TA, Guthrie EA, Walton BT (1993) Bioremediation in the rhizosphere. Plant roots and associated microbes clean contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 27:2630–2636Google Scholar
  5. Arif and Ghoul (2018) Halotolerance of indigenous fluorescent pseudomonads in the presence of natural osmoprotectants. Annu Res Rev Biol 24(4):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arora NK, Tewari S, Singh S, Maheshwari DK (2013) PGPR for protection of plant health under saline conditions. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: stress management. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 239–258Google Scholar
  7. Arora NK, Mishra J (2016) Prospecting the roles of metabolites and additives in future bioformulations for sustainable agriculture. Appl Soil Ecol 107:405–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arora NK, Verma M (2017) Modified microplate method for rapid and efficient estimation of siderophore produced by bacteria. 3 Biotech 7:e381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arora N, Kumar V, Maheshwari D (2000) Isolation of both fast and slow growing rhizobia effectively nodulating a medicinal legume, Mucuna pruriens. Symbiosis 29(2):121–137Google Scholar
  10. Arora NK, Verma M, Prakash J, Mishra J (2016) Regulation of biopesticides: global concerns and policies. In: Arora NK, Mehnaz S, Balestrini R (eds) Bioformulations: for sustainable agriculture. Springer, New Delhi. Scholar
  11. Arora NK, Fatima T, Mishra I, Verma M, Mishra J, Mishra V (2018a) Environmental sustainability: challenges and viable solutions. Environ Sustain 1(4):309–340Google Scholar
  12. Arora NK, Khare E, Singh S, Tewari S (2018b) Phenetic, genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility of rhizobial strains nodulating pigeon pea in Northern India. 3 Biotech 8(1):52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arora NK, Fatima T, Mishra I, Verma S (2020) Microbe-based Inoculants: role in next green revolution. In: Shukla V, Kumar N (eds) Environmental concerns and sustainable development. Springer, Singapore, pp 191–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashraf M (2009) Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnol Adv 27:84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashraf M, Hasnain S, Berge O, Mahmood T (2004) Inoculating wheat seedlings with exopolysaccharides producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt-stress. Biol Fertil Soils 40:157–162Google Scholar
  16. Awad N, Turky AM, Attia M (2012) Ameliorate of environmental salt stress on the growth of Zea mays L. plants by exopolysaccharides producing bacteria. J Appl Sci Res 8:2033–2044Google Scholar
  17. Banat IM, Franzetti A, Gandolfi I, Bestetti G, Martinotti MG, Fracchia L, Smyth TJ, Marchant R (2010) Microbial biosurfactants production, applications and future potential. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87(2):427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bargaz A, Lyamlouli K, Chtouki M, Zeroual Y, Dhiba D (2018) Soil microbial resources for improving fertilizers efficiency in an integrated plant nutrient management system. Front Microbiol 9.
  19. Bari R, Jones JD (2009) Role of plant hormones in plant defence responses. Plant Mol Biol 69:473–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barnawal D, Bharti N, Pandey SS, Pandey A, Chanotiya CS, Kalra A (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhances wheat salt and drought stress tolerance by altering endogenous phytohormone levels and TaCTR1/TaDREB2 expression. Physiol Plant 161(4):502–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bartels C, Franks R, Rybar S, Schierach M, Wilf M (2005) The effect of feed ionic strength on salt passage through reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 184(1):185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Berger LRR, Stamford NP, Santos CERS, Freitas ADS, Franco LO, Stamford TCM (2013) Plant and soil characteristics affected by biofertilizers from rocks and organic matter inoculated with diazotrophic bacteria and fungi that produce chitosan. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:592–603Google Scholar
  23. Besri M (1993) Effects of salinity on plant disease development. In: Lieth H, Al Masoom A (eds) Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants, vol 2. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bhargava Y, Murthy JSR, Rajesh Kumar TV, Narayana Rao M (2016) Phenotypic, stress tolerance and plant growth promoting characteristics of rhizobial isolates from selected wild legumes of semiarid region, Tirupati, India. Adv Microbiol 6:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bharti N, Pandey SS, Barnawal D, Patel VK, Kalra A (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Dietzia natronolimnaea modulates the expression of stress responsive genes providing protection of wheat from salinity stress. Sci Rep 6:34768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Biswas B, Sarkar B, Faustorilla MV, Naidu R (2018) Effect of surface-tailored biocompatible organoclay on the bioavailability and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soil. Environ Technol Innov 10:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bogino PC, Oliva Mde L, Sorroche FG, Giordano W (2013) The role of bacterial biofilms and surface components in plant–bacterial associations. Int J Mol Sci 14:15838–15859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bougouffa S, Radovanovic A, Essack M, Bajic VB (2014) DEOP: a database on osmoprotectants and associated pathways. Database. 2014 bau100–bau100. pmid:25326239
  30. Cardinale M, Ratering S, Suarez C, Zapata MAM, Geissler-Plaum R, Schnell S (2015) Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress. Microbiol Res 181:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chaichi MR, Afshar RK, Saberi M, Falahtabar N (2016) Alleviation of salinity and drought stress in corn production using a non-ionic surfactant. J Anim Plant Sci 26(4):1042–1047Google Scholar
  32. Chakraborty A, Chakrabarti K, Chakraborty A, Ghosh S (2011) Effect of long-term fertilizers and manure application on microbial biomass and microbial activity of a tropical agricultural soil. Biol Fertil Soils 47:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chatterjee P, Kanagendran A, Samaddar S, Pazouki L, Sa TM, Niinemets Ü (2018) Inoculation of Brevibacterium linens RS16 in Oryza sativa genotypes enhanced salinity resistance: impacts on photosynthetic traits and foliar volatile emissions. Sci Total Environ 645:721–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen K, Kurgan L, Rahbari M (2007) Prediction of protein crystallization using collocation of amino acid pairs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 355:764–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J, Clement C, Barka EA (2005) Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(9):4951–4959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cordovilla MP, Ocãna A, Ligero F, Lluch C (1995) Salinity effects on growth analysis and nutrient composition in four grain legumes-Rhizobium symbiosis. J Plant Nutr 18:1595–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cordovilla MDP, Ligero F, Lluch C (1999) Effects of NaCl on growth and nitrogen fixation and assimilation of inoculated and KNO3 fertilized Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. plants. Plant Sci 140(2):127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Coser SM, Chowda Reddy RV, Zhang J, Mueller DS, Mengistu A, Wise KA, Allen TW, Singh A, Singh AK (2017) Genetic architecture of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) resistance in soybean revealed using a diverse panel. Front Plant Sci 8:1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Costa OYA, Raaijmakers JM, Kuramae EE (2018) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances: ecological function and impact on soil aggregation. Front Microbiol 9:1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cutler SR, Rodriguez PL, Finkelstein RR, Abrams SR (2010) Abscisic acid: emergence of a core signaling network. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:651–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Daami-Remadi M, Ben Oun H, Souissi A, Mansour M, Jabnoun-Khiared-dine H, Nasraoui B (2009) Effects of saline irrigation water on Verticillium wilt severity and tomato growth. Plant Stress 3:40–48Google Scholar
  42. Dodd IC, Pérez-Alfocea F (2012) Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. J Exp Bot 63:3415–3428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Egamberdieva D (2009) Alleviation of salt stress by plant growth regulators and IAA producing bacteria in wheat. Acta Physiol Plant 31:861–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Egamberdieva D, Lugtenberg B (2014) Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to alleviate salinity stress in plants. In: Miransari M (ed) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses, vol 1. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp 73–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Egamberdieva D, Davranov K, Wirth S, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF (2017) Impact of soil salinity on the plant-growth-promoting and biological control abilities of root associated bacteria. Saudi J Biol Sci 24(7):1601–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elsheikh EAE, Wood M (1990) Effect of salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). J Exp Bot 41:1263–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Etesami H, Beattie GA (2018) Mining halophytes for plant growth promoting halotolerant bacteria to enhance the salinity tolerance of non–halophytic crops. Front Microbiol 9:148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. FAO (2015) Global soil partnership- world soil charter. e.pdf
  49. Figueiredo MVB, Burity HA, Martìnez CR, Chanway CP (2008) Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl Soil Ecol 40:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fukami J, Cerezini P, Hungria M (2018) Azospirillum: benefits that go far beyond biological nitrogen fixation. AMB Express 8:73. Scholar
  51. Garg N, Sinhgla R (2005) Influence of salinity on growth and yield attributes in chickpea cultivars. Turk J Agric For 29:231–235Google Scholar
  52. Ghorai S, Pal KK, Dey R (2015) Alleviation of salinity stress in groundnut by application of PGPR. Int Res J Eng Technol 2:742–750Google Scholar
  53. Ghoulam C, Foursy A, Fares K (2002) Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 47:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 252:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Goswami D, Thakker JN, Dhandhukia PC (2016) Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. Cogent Food Agric 2:1–19Google Scholar
  58. Goudarzi S, Banihashemi Z, Maftoun M (2011) Effect of salt and water stress on root infection by Macrophomina phaseolina and ion composition in shoot in sorghum. Iranian J Plant Pathol 47(3):69–83Google Scholar
  59. Gutleben J, De Mares MC, van Elsas JD, Smidt H, Overmann J, Sipkema D (2018) The multi-omics promise in context: from sequence to microbial isolate. Crit Rev Microbiol 44:212–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Habib SH, Kausar H, Saud, HM (2016) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance salinity stress tolerance in okra through ROS-scavenging enzymes. Biomed Res Int Article ID 6284547 pp 10Google Scholar
  61. Hahm MS, Son JS, Hwang YJ, Kwon DK, Ghim SY (2017) Alleviation of salt stress in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. J Microbiol Biotechnol 27(10):1790–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Haas D, Keel C (2003) Regulation of antibiotic production in root-colonizing Peudomonas spp. and relevance for biological control of plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 41(1):117–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Halo BA, Khan AL, Waqas M, Al-Harrasi A, Hussain J, Ali L, Adnan M, Lee IJ (2015) Endophytic bacteria (Sphingomonas sp. LK11) and Gibberellin can improve Solanum lycopersicum growth and oxidative stress under salinity. J Plant Interact 10:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Han HS, Lee KD (2005) Physiological responses of soybean inoculation of Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum with PGPR in saline soil conditions. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1:216–221Google Scholar
  65. Hossain MM, Mahbub MM, Shirazy BJ (2016) Growth and yield performance of mungbean varietiesin summer cultivation. Sci Agric 16:79–82Google Scholar
  66. Howell AB, Francois L, Erwin DC (1994) Interactive effects of salinity and Verticillium alboatrum on Verticillium wilt disease severity and yield of two alfalfa cultivars. Field Crop Res 37:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Howell SH, Lall S, Che P (2003) Cytokinins and shoot development. Trends Plant Sci 8:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hussein KA, Joo JH (2018) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved salinity tolerance of Lactuca sativa and Raphanus sativus. J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(6):938–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Husson E, Hadad C, Huet G, Laclef S, Lesur D, Lambertyn V, Jamali A, Gottis S, Sarazin C, Van Nhien AN (2017) The effect of room temperature ionic liquids on the selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of chitin via sequential or simultaneous strategies. Green Chem 19(17): 4122–4131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ilangumaran G, Smith DL (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in amelioration of salinity stress: a systems biology perspective. Front Plant Sci 8:1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jaemsaeng R, Jantasuriyarat C, Thamchaipenet A (2018) Positive role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase-producing endophytic Streptomyces sp. GMKU 336 on flooding resistance of mung bean. Agric Nat Resour 52:330–334Google Scholar
  72. Jha CK, Saraf M (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. E3 J Agric Res Dev 5:108–119Google Scholar
  73. Jha Y, Subramanian RB, Patel S (2011) Combination of endophytic and rhizospheric plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Oryza sativa shows higher accumulation of osmoprotectant against saline stress. Acta Physiol Plant 33:797–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kai M, Effmert U, Berg G, Piechulla B (2007) Volatiles of bacterial antagonists inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Arch Microbiol 187:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kang SM, Khan AL, Waqas M, You YH, Kim JH, Kim JG, Hamayun M, Lee IJ (2014) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce adverse effects of salinity and osmotic stress by regulating phytohormones and antioxidants in Cucumis sativus. J Plant Interact 9:673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Khalid M, Bilal M, Hassani D, Iqbal HMN, Wang H, Huang D (2017) Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect. Bot Stud 58:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khan AL, Hamayun M, Kim YH, Kang SM, Lee JH, Lee IJ (2011) Gibberellins producing endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus sp. LH02 influenced endogenous phytohormonal levels, plant growth and isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean under salt stress. Process Biochem 46:440–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Khan AL, Waqas M, Hamayun M, Al-Harrasi A, Al-Rawahi A, Lee IJ (2013) Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation. BMC Microbiol 13:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Khare E, Mishra J, Arora NK (2018) Multifaceted interactions between endophytes and plant: developments and prospects. Front Microbiol 9:2732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khorasgani OA, Mortazaeinezhad F, Rafiee P (2017) Variations in the growth, oil quantity and quality and mineral nutrients of chamomile genotypes under salinity stress. J Cent Eur Agric 18(1):150–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kohler J, Caravaca F, Carrasco L, Roldan A (2006) Contribution of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices to aggregates stabilization and promotion of biological properties in rhizosphere soil of lettuce plants under field conditions. Soil Use Manag 22:298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koo H, Falsetta ML, Klein MI (2013) The exopolysaccharide matrix: a virulence determinant of cariogenic biofilm. J Dent Res 92(12):1065–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kumar H, Arora NK, Kumar V, Maheshwari DK (1998) Isolation, characterization and selection of salt tolerant rhizobia nodulating Acacia catechu and A. nilotica. Symbiosis 26:279–288Google Scholar
  84. Kumar M, Sharma S, Gupta S, Kumar V (2018) Mitigation of abiotic stresses in Lycopersicon esculentum by endophytic bacteria. Environ Sustain 1:71–80. Scholar
  85. Kumari P, Khanna V (2015) ACC-deaminase and EPS production by salt tolerant rhizobacteria augment growth in chickpea under salinity stress. Int J Bio-Resour Stress Manag 6(5):558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lacerda CF, Cambraia J, Oliva MA, Ruiz HA (2005) Changes in growth and insolute concentrations in sorghum leaves and roots during salt stress recovery. Environ Exp 54:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Laus MC, Logman TJ, Lamers GE, Van Brussel AAN, Carlson RW, Kijne JW (2006) A novel polar surface polysaccharide from Rhizobium leguminosarum binds host plant lectin. Mol Microbiol 59:1704–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Leibfried A, To JP, Busch W, Stehling S, Kehle A, Demar M, Kieber JJ, Lohmann JU (2005) WUSCHEL controls meristem function by direct regulation of cytokinin-inducible response regulators. Nature 438:1172–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lindsay WL (1992) Chemical equilibria in soils. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Loper JE, Gross H (2007) Genomic analysis of antifungal metabolite production by Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-5. Eur J Plant Pathol 119(3):265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. López-Bucio J, Millán-Godínez M, Méndez-Bravo A, Morquecho-Contreras A, Ramírez-Chávez E, Molina-Torres J, Pérez-Torres A, Higuchi M, Kakimoto T, Herrera-Estrella L (2007) Cytokinin receptors are involved in alkamide regulation of root and shoot development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 145(4):1703–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. López-Pazos SA, Gómez CJE, Salamanca CJA (2009) Cry1B and Cry3A are active against Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (coleoptera: scolytidae). J Invertebr Pathol 101(3):242–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. López-Leal G, Tabche ML, Castillo-Ramírez S, Mendoza-Vargas A, Ramírez-Romero MA, Dávila G (2014) RNA-seq analysis of the multipartite genome of Rhizobium etli CE3 shows different replicon contributions under heat and saline shock. BMC Genomics 15:770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63(1):541–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ma W, Sebestianova SB, Sebestian J, Burd GI, Guinel FC, Glick BR (2002) Prevalence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate deaminase in rhizobia spp. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, in pressGoogle Scholar
  96. Maggio A, Barbieri G, Raimondi G, De Pascale S (2010) Contrasting effects of ga3 treatments on tomato plants exposed to increasing salinity. J Plant Growth Regul 29:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mahmood S, Daur I, Al-Solaimani SG, Ahmad S, Madkour MH, Yasir M, Hirt H, Ali S, Ali Z (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and silicon synergistically enhance salinity tolerance of mung bean. Front Plant Sci 7:876Google Scholar
  98. Marasco R, Mapelli F, Rolli E, Mosqueira MJ, Fusi M, Bariselli P, Reddy M, Cherif A, Tsiamis G, Borin S, Daffonchio D (2016) Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) grown under different tidal regimes selects rhizosphere bacteria capable of promoting plant growth. Front Microbiol 7:1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mashhady AS, Salem SH, Barakah FN, Heggo AM (1998) Effect of salinity on survival and symbiotic performance between Rhizobiummeliloti and Medicago sativa L. in Saudi Arabian soils. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 12:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mavrodi DV, Mavrodi OV, Parejko JA, Bonsall RF, Kwak YS, Paulitz TC, Thomashow LS, Weller DM (2012) Accumulation of the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the rhizosphere of dryland cereals. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:804–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mhadhbi H, Jebara M, Zitoun A, Limam F, Aouani ME (2008) Symbiotic effectiveness and response to mannitol mediated osmotic stress of various chickpea-rhizobia associations. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:1027–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mhadhbi H, Fotopoulos V, Mylona PV, Jebara M, Aouani ME, Polidoros AN (2011) Antioxidant gene-enzyme responses in Medicago truncatula genotypes with different degree of sensitivity to salinity. Physiol Plant 141:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mhadhbi M, Chaouch M, Ajroud K, Darghouth MA, BenAbderrazak S (2015) Sequence polymorphism of cytochrome b gene in Theileria annulata Tunisian isolates and its association with buparvaquone treatment failure. PLoS One 10:e0129678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Miller KJ, Wood JM (1996) Osmoadaptation by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 50:101–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mishra SK, Khan MH, Misra S, Dixit KV, Khare P, Srivastava S, Chauhan PS (2017) Characterisation of Pseudomonas spp. and Ochrobactrum sp. isolated from volcanic soil. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 110(2):253–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mishra J, Fatima T, Arora NK (2018) Role of secondary metabolites from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in combating salinity stress. In: Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P (eds) Plant microbiome: stress response. Springer, Singapore, pp 127–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Misra NN, Yadav B, Roopesh MS, Jo C (2018) Cold plasma for effective fungal and mycotoxin control in foods: mechanisms, inactivation effects, and applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 18(1):106–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mohammed AF (2018) Effectiveness of exopolysaccharides and biofilm forming plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on salinity tolerance of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Afr J Microbiol Res 12(17):399–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mumtaz MZ, Ahmad M, Jamil M, Hussain T (2017) Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize. Microbiol Res 202:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nabti E, Schmid M, Hartmann A (2015) Application of halotolerant bacteria to restore plant growth under salt stress. In: Maheshwari DK, Saraf M (eds) Halophiles. Springer, Cham, pp 235–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nachmias A, Kaufman Z, Livescu L, Tsror L, Meiri A, Caligari PDS (1993) Effect of salinity and its interaction with disease incidence on potatoes grown in hot climates. Phytoparasitica 21:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nadeem SM, Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Kharal MA (2016) Role of phytohormones in stress tolerance of plants. In: Hakeem KR, Akhtar MS (eds) Plant, soil and microbes–volume 2, mechanisms and molecular interactions. Springer, Cham, pp 385–421Google Scholar
  113. Nautiyal CS, Srivastava S, Chauhan PS, Seem K, Mishra A, Sopory SK (2013) Plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 modulates gene expression profile of leaf and rhizosphere community in rice during salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 66:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Navarro-Torre S, Barcia-Piedras JM, Mateos-Naranjo E, Redondo-Gómez S, Camacho M, Caviedes MA et al (2017) Assessing the role of endophytic bacteria in the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum salt tolerance. Plant Biol 19:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nicolas JIL, Acosta M, Sanchez-Bravo J (2004) Role of basipetal auxin transport and lateral auxin movement in rooting and growth of etiolated lupin hypocotyls. Physiol Plant 121:294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Numan M, Bashir S, Khan Y, Mumtaz R, Shinwari ZK, Khan AL, Khan A, al-Harrasi A (2018) Plant growth promoting bacteria as an alternative strategy for salt tolerance in plants: a review. Microbiol Res 209:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Olanrewaju OO, Glick BR, Babalola OO (2017) Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33:197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Orhan F (2016) Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Braz J Microbiol 47:621–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Panwar M, Tewari R, Nayyar H (2016) Native halo-tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Enterococcus and Pantoea Sp. improve seed yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) under soil salinity by reducing sodium uptake and stress injury. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 22(4):445–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Parvaiz A, Khalid URH, Ashwani K, Muhammad A, Nudrat AA (2012) Salt-induced changes in photosynthetic activity and oxidative defense system of three cultivars of mustard (Brassicajuncea L.). Afr J Biotechnol 11:2694–2703Google Scholar
  121. Paul D (2013) Osmotic stress adaptations in rhizobacteria. J Basic Microbiol 53:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Paul D, Lade H (2014) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to improve crop growth in saline soils: a review. Agron Sustain Dev, Springer, Verlag 34:737–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Poli A, Anzelmo G, Nicolaus B (2010) Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities. Mar Drugs 8:1779–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Puppo A, Halliwell B (1988) Formation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron. Is haemoglobin a biological Fenton reagent? Biochem J 249:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Qin S, Feng W-W, Zhang Y-J, Wang T-T, Xiong Y-W, Xing K (2018) Diversity of bacterial microbiota of coastal halophyte Limonium sinense and amelioration of salinity stress damage by symbiotic plant growth-promoting actinobacterium Glutamicibacter halophytocola KLBMP 5180. Appl Environ Microbiol 84:e01533–e01518. Scholar
  126. Qurashi WA, Sabri NA (2012) Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress. Braz J Microbiol 43:1183–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Qurashi AW, Sabri AN (2013) Osmolyte accumulation in moderately halophilic bacteria improves salt tolerance of chickpea. Pak J Bot 45(3):1011–1016Google Scholar
  128. Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I, de Kock MJD (2006) Cyclic lipopeptide production by plant-associated spp: diversity, activity, biosynthesis, and regulation. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19(7):699–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ramesh A, Sharma SK, Sharmaa MP, Yadava N, Joshi OP (2014) Inoculation of zinc solubilizing Bacillus aryabhattai strains for improved growth, mobilization and biofortification of zinc in soybean and wheat cultivated in vertisols of central India. Appl Soil Ecol 73:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Raheem A, Ali B (2015) Halotolerant rhizobacteria: beneficial plant metabolites and growth enhancement of Triticum aestivum L. in salt-amended soils. Arch Agron Soil Sci 61:1691–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rajput L, Imran A, Mubeen F, Hafeez FY (2013) Salt-tolerant pgpr strain Planococcusrifietoensis promotes the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) cultivated in saline soil. Pak J Bot 45(6):1955–1962Google Scholar
  132. Rasmussen SL, Stanghellini ME (1988) Effect of salinity stress on development of pythium blight in Agrostis palustris. Phytopathology 78:1495–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ravari SB, Heidarzadeh N (2014) Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere auxin producing Bacilli and evaluation of their potency on wheat growth improvement. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:895–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Raychev T, Popandova S, Jozefaciuk G, Hajnos M, Sokolowska Z (2001) Physicochemical reclamation of saline soils using coal powder. Int Agrophys 15:51–54Google Scholar
  135. Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. J Exp Bot 57:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Reuber TL, Walker GC (1993) Biosynthesis of succinoglycan, a symbiotically important exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti. Cell 74:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Review M (2008) Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302(1):1–17Google Scholar
  138. Ribeiro VA, Burkert CAV (2016) Exopolysaccharides produced by Rhizobium: production, composition and rheological properties. J Polym Biopolym Phys Chem 4(1):1–6Google Scholar
  139. Rodriguez R, Redman R (2008) More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can’t make it on their own: plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis. J Exp Bot 59(5):1109–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rojas-Tapias D, Moreno-Galván A, Pardo-Díaz S, Obando M, Rivera D, Bonilla R (2012) Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays). Appl Soil Ecol 61:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rüberg S, Pühler A, Becker A (1999) Biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide galactoglucan in Sinorhizobium meliloti is subject to a complex control by the phosphate-dependent regulator PhoB and the proteins ExpG and MucR. Microbiology 145:603–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sachs T (2005) Auxins role as an example of the mechanisms of shoot/root relations. Plant Soil 268:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sadeghi A, Karimi E, Dahazi PA, Javid MG, Dalvand Y, Askari H (2012) Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore producing isolate of Streptomyces under saline soil condition. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1503–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Saghafi D, Ghorbanpour M, Lajayer BA (2018) Efficiency of Rhizobium strains as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on morpho-physiological properties of Brassica napus L. under salinity stress. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr
  145. Sah SK, Reddy KR, Li J (2016) Abscisic acid and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Front Plant Sci 7:571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Salomon MV, Bottini R, de Souza Filho GA, Cohen AC, Moreno D, Gil M, Piccoli P (2014) Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine. Plant Physiol 151:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sanogo S (2004) Response of chile pepper to Phytophthora capsici in relation to soil salinity. Plant Dis 88:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sapre S, Gontia-Mishra I, Tiwari S (2018) Klebsiella sp. confers enhanced tolerance to salinity and plant growth promotion in oat seedlings (Avena sativa). Microbiol Res 206:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Saraf M, Pandya U, Thakkar A (2014) Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens. Microbiol Res 169(1):18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2007) ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated saline resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) plants. J Appl Microbiol 102:1283–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Scandalios JG (2002) The rise of ROS. Trends Biochem Sci 27:483–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schünemann R, Knaak N, Fiuza LM (2014) Mode of action and specificity of toxins in the control of caterpillars and stink bugs in soybean culture. ISRN Microbiol 2014:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schwab AP, Banks MK (1994) Biologically mediated dissipation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the root zone. In: Anderson T, Coates J (eds) Bioremediation through rhizosphere technology. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Seckin B, Sekmen AH, Turkan I (2009) An enhancing effect of exogenous mannitol on the antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of wheat under salt stress. J Plant Growth Regul 28:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Selvakumar G, Panneerselvam P, Ganeshamurthy AN (2012) Bacterial mediated alleviation of abiotic stress in crops. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: stress management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 205–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sgroy V, Cassán F, Masciarelli O, Del Papa MF, Lagares A, Luna V (2009) Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2006) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under axenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Lett Appl Microbiol 42:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shahzad R, Khan AL, Bilal S, Waqas M, Kang SM, Lee IJ (2017) Inoculation of abscisic acid-producing endophytic bacteria enhances salinity stress tolerance in Oryza sativa. Environ Exp Bot 136:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sharma A, Singh P, Kumar S, Kashyap PL, Srivastava AK, Chakdar H, Sharma AK (2015) Deciphering diversity of salt-tolerant bacilli from saline soils of eastern Indo-gangetic plains of India. Geomicrobiol J 32:170–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Silini A, Cherif-Silini H, Yahiaoui B (2016) Growing varieties durum wheat (Triticumdurum) in response to the effect of osmolytes and inoculation by Azotobacter chroococcum under salt stress. Afr J Microbiol Res 10:387–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith DL, Gravel V, Yergeau E (2017) Editorial: signaling in the phytomicrobiome. Front Plant Sci 8:611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Subramanian S, Ricci E, Souleimanov A, Smith DL (2016) A proteomic approach to lipochitooligosaccharide and thuricin 17 effects on soybean germination unstressed and salt stress. PLoS One 11:e0160660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tanji KK (2002) Salinity in the soil environment. In: Lauchli A, Luttge U (eds) Salinity environment-plant – molecules. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 21–51Google Scholar
  164. Technical Report on Soil Degradation (2000) European environmental priorities: an integrated economic and environmental assessment.
  165. Teng S, Liu Y, Zhao L (2010) Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 50:1503–1509Google Scholar
  166. Tewari S, Arora NK (2014a) Multifunctional exopolysacccharides from Pseudomonasaeruginosa PF23 involved in plant growth stimulation, biocontrol and stress amelioration in sunflower under stress conditions. Curr Microbiol 69:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tewari S, Arora NK (2014b) Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Helianthus annuus under saline conditions. Cell Mol Biol 60(5):73–81Google Scholar
  168. Tewari S, Arora NK (2016) Fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. PF17 as an efficient plant growth regulator and biocontrol agent for sunflower crop under saline conditions. Symbiosis 1(3):99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tewari S, Arora NK (2018) Role of salicylic acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF23EPS+ in growth promotion of sunflower in saline soils infested with phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina. Environ Sustain 1(1):49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Timmusk S, Behers L, Muthoni J, Muraya A, Aronsson AC (2017) Perspectives and challenges of microbial application for crop improvement. Front Plant Sci 8:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Torbaghan ME, Lakzian A, Astaraei AR, Fotovat A, Besharati H (2017) Salt and alkali stresses reduction in wheat by plant growth promoting haloalkaliphilic bacteria. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17:1058–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Transparency Market Research (2018) Bioremediation technology & services market size, share, trends, growth, export value, volume & trade, sales, pricing forecast.
  173. Turan M, Gulluce M, Sahin F (2012) Effects of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria on yield, growth and some physiological characteristics of wheat and barley plants. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 43:1658–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Vaddepalli P, Fulton L, Wieland J, Wassmer K, Schaeffer M, Ranf S, Schneitz K (2017) The cell wall-localized atypical β-1, 3 glucanase ZERZAUST controls tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 144:2259–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Verma M, Mishra J, Arora NK (2019) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: diversity and applications. In: Sobti RC, Arora NK, Kothari R (eds) Environmental biotechnology: for sustainable future. Springer, Singapore. Scholar
  176. Vivas A, Marulanda A, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Barea JM, Azcon R (2003) Influence of a Bacillus sp. on physiological activities of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and on plant responses to PEG-induced drought stress. Mycorrhiza 13:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Volkmar KM, Hy Y, Steppuhn H (1998) Physiological responses of plants to salinity: a review. Can J Plant Sci 78:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wang CJ, Yang W, Wang C, Gu C, Niu DD, Liu HX, Wang YP, Guo JH (2012) Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains. PLoS One 7:1–10Google Scholar
  179. Wang X, Mavrodi DV, Ke L, Mavrodi OV, Yang M, Thomashow LS (2015) Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils. Microb Biotechnol 8:404–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wong WS, Tan SN, Ge L, Chen X, Yong JWH (2015) The importance of phytohormones and microbes in biofertilizers. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacterial metabolites in sustainable agroecosystem, vol 12. Springer, Cham, pp 105–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Yan J, Campbell JH, Glick BR, Smith MD, Liang Y (2014) Molecular characterization and expressionanalysis of chloroplast protein import components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). PLoS One 9(4):e95088. Agric Nat Sci 52(4): 330–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Yang A, Akhtar SS, Amjad M, Iqbal S, Jacobsen SE (2016) Growth and physiological responses of quinoa to drought and temperature stress. J Agron Crop Sci 202:445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Zahran HH (1999) Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:968–989Google Scholar
  184. Zahran HH, Mohammad EM, Emam MM, Ismael SS (1997) The chemical composition, structure and ultrastructure of a halotolerant rhizobia isolated from Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 9th Microbiology Conference pp 121–148Google Scholar
  185. Zhang H, Kim MS, Sun Y, Dowd SE, Shi H, Paré PW (2008) Soil bacteria confer plant salt tolerance by tissue-specific regulation of the sodium transporter HKT1. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:737–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zhao S, Zhou N, Zhao ZY, Zhang K, Wu GH, Tian CY (2016) Isolation of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with the halophyte Salicornia europaea and evaluation of their promoting activity under salt stress. Curr Microbiol 73:574–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhu JK, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM, Bohnert HJ (2005) Salt and crops: salinity tolerance. News CAST: News Coun Agric Sci Technol 32:13–16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tahmish Fatima
    • 1
  • Naveen Kumar Arora
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology, School for Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations