Natural and Artificial Soil Amendments for the Efficient Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil

  • Poonam
  • Narendra Kumar
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 9)


Anthropogenic pollution caused by excessive use of chemicals, metals, radioactive substances, and organic pollutants has deteriorated quality of environmental assets, i.e., air, water, and soil. To restore the quality of all these essential systems, scientists and researchers are trying to stabilize contaminants in-situ rather than in in-vivo conditions. One of such effort is phytoremediation, which utilizes the application of green plants, herbs, and shrubs at contaminated sites to restrict the movement of pollutants and to decontaminate polluted sites. Application of various kinds of plants for bioremediation of polluted soils is an eco-friendly approach, with negligible effect over environment and also without disturbing the soil physicochemical properties. This technology also offers an opportunity to rejuvenate precious metals and utilize left biomass for the production of bioenergy. The present book chapter deals with different aspects of phytoremediation processes for remediation and recovery of contaminated soil and improving its efficiency with augmentation of different organic and inorganic amendments. Soil amendments can lessen up the bioavailability of contaminants in soils and decrease the risk of food chain contamination. These amendments include the application of biochar, vermicomposting, slow-release fertilizers, and nanoparticles to the soil to enhance the phytoremediation process. Role of these amendments on bioavailability of contaminants, their uptake, translocation, bioaccumulation, and its effect on growth and developments of plants has been thoroughly addressed in the present chapter. Further, different constraints like slow growth rate and effect of seasonal variations on development of plants have also been discussed.


Phytoremediation Soil pollution Organic amendments Inorganic amendments In situ remediation Organic pollutants 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poonam
    • 1
  • Narendra Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceSchool for Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

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