Seed Sector Development in Nepal: Opportunities and Options for Improvement

  • Devendra GauchanEmail author


The chapter analyzes the key issues and constraints in the seed sector in Nepal, which represents one of the most important inputs for agricultural productivity growth. It analyzes the options and opportunities for improvement in the seed sector and identifies policy recommendations for this sector’s development. The chapter suggests that a clearly designed seed policy should be developed to create enabling environments for public–private partnership and provide coherence for a level playing field for the development of a dynamic, pluralistic and sustainable seed system in Nepal.


  1. Almekinders, C. J. M., & de Boef, W. S. (Eds.). (2000). Encouraging diversity. Plant genetic resource conservation and crop development (pp. 330–338). London: IT Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Bista, D. R., Dhungel, S., & Adhikari, S. (2016). Status of fertilizer and seed subsidy in Nepal: Review and recommendation. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 17, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brennan, J. P., & Byerlee, D. (1991). The rate of crop varietal replacement on farms: Measures and empirical results for wheat. Plant Varieties Seeds, 4, 99–106.Google Scholar
  4. CBS. (2013). National sample census of agriculture Nepal, 2011/12. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  5. CDD. (2015). Rice varietal mapping in Nepal: Implication for development and adoption. Crop Development Directorate (CDD), Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Hariharbhavan, Lalitpur, Nepal.Google Scholar
  6. Evenson, R. E., & Gollin, D. (2003). Crop genetic improvement in developing countries: Overview and summary. In R. E. Evenson & D. Gollin (Eds.), Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity (pp. 7–38). Oxford: CABI Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO. (2011). Strengthening seed systems: Gap analysis of the seed sector. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA). Thirteenth regular session, Rome 18–22. July 2011. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation, Rome.Google Scholar
  8. FAOSTAT. (2014). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation. Rome, Italy. Website
  9. Gauchan, D. (2017). Research and support services in seed production and supply in Nepal. In M. P. Khanal & R. P. Adhikari (Eds.), Seed industry development in Nepal. National Seed Submit. Kathmandu, Nepal: Seed Quality Control Centre (SQCC).Google Scholar
  10. Gauchan, D., Thapa Magar, D. B., & Gautam, S. (2016a). Rice seed production and marketing practices in Nepal. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 17, 111–117.Google Scholar
  11. Gauchan, D., Pant, K. P., & Joshi, B. K. (2016b). Economic benefits of foreign sourced germplasm in domestic crop improvement program: A case of an improved Khumal-4 rice variety in Nepal. Agronomy Journal of Nepal, 4, 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gauchan, D., & Dongol, D. (2015). Country report for wheat and maize expert elicitation studies, Nepal. CIMMYT/NARC, Nepal. Strengthening Impact Assessment in CGIAR (SIAC) Project. USA: Michigan University.Google Scholar
  13. Gauchan, D., Thapa Magar, D. B., Gautam, S., Singh, S., & Singh, U. S. (2014). Strengthening seed system for rice seed production and supply in Nepal. IRRI-NARC collaborative EC-IFAD funded project on Seed Net Development. Socioeconomics and Agricultural Research Policy Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Nepal. 40p.Google Scholar
  14. Gauchan, D., Pant, H. K., Gautam, S., & Nepali, M. B. (2012). Patterns of adoption of improved rice varieties and farm level impact in stress prone rainfed areas of Nepal. In S. Pandey, D. Gauchan, M. Malabayabas, M. Bool-Emerick, & B. Hardy (Eds.), Patterns of adoption of improved rice varieties and farm-level impacts in stress-prone rainfed areas in South Asia (p. 318). Los Baños, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).Google Scholar
  15. Gauchan, D., & Pandey, S. (2011). Is investment in rice research in Nepal adequate and balanced across production environments? Some empirical evidence. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 50(4), 305–324.Google Scholar
  16. Gurung, R., Palikhe, E., Sthapit, S., Pudasaini, N., Subedi, A., Gauchan, D., & Sthapit, B. (2016). Seed systems and management practices of high altitude traditional crops in Nepal. A paper presented in International Conference on Mountains in Changing World, October 2–3, 2016. Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  17. IFAD. (2015). Improved Seeds for Farmers’ Programme (Kisankalagi Unnat Biubijan Karyakaram). Review of seed component activities, Main report and Appendices, KUBK-ISFP, 23 November–31 December, 2015, Nepal.Google Scholar
  18. IRRI. (2014). Annual report 2014. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). Bangladesh, India and Nepal sign historic agreement in the evaluation of rice varieties.
  19. Joshi, B. K., Bhatt, M. R., Ghimire, K. H., Chaudhary, P., & Singh, D. (2016). Mapping and measuring the flow and interdependence of plant genetic resources. Chapter II. In B. K. Joshi, P. Chaudhary, D. Upadhyay, & R. Vernooy, (Eds.). Implementing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges. LI-BIRD, NARC, MoAD and Bioversity International 2016. p. 134.Google Scholar
  20. Joshi, K. D., Conroy, C., & Witcombe, J. R. (2012). Agriculture, seed and innovation in Nepal: Industry and policy for the future. Paper, Dec. 2012, IFPRI, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Joshi, K. D., Khanal, N. P., Harris, D., Khanal, N. N., Sapkota, A., Khadka, K., et al. (2014). Regulatory reform of seed systems: Benefits and impacts from a mungbean case study in Nepal. Field Crops Research, 158(2014), 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kansiime, M. K., & Mastenbroek, A. (2016). Enhancing resilience of farmer seed system to climate-induced stresses: Insights from a case study in West Nile region, Uganda. Journal of Rural Studies, 47(2016), 220–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khanal, M. (2017). Seed quality assurance and marketing system in Nepal. In M. P. Khanal & R. P. Adhikari (Eds.), Seed Industry Development in Nepal. National Seed Submit, 2015. Seed Quality Control Centre (SQCC), Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  24. Louwaars, N. P., & de Boef, W. S. (2012). Integrated seed sector development in Africa: A conceptual framework for creating coherence between practices, programmes, and policies. Journal of Crop Improvement, 26, 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mallik, R. N. (1981). Rice in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: KalaPrakasan.Google Scholar
  26. Morris, M. L., Dubin, H. J., & Pokherel, T. (1994). Returns to wheat breeding research in Nepal. Agricultural Economics, 10, 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MoAD. (2013). National Seed vision 2025, Seed Act (1988) amended in 2008 and Seed Regulation (2013). National Seed Board (NSB), Ministry of Agriculture Development (MoAD), Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  28. MoAD. (2015). Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS). Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD), Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  29. Naseem, A., Spielman, D. J., & Omamo, S. W. (2010). Private-sector investment in R&D: A review of policy options to promote its growth in developing-country agriculture. Agribusiness, 26(1), 143–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pray, C. E., & Ramaswami, B. (1991). A framework for seed policy analysis in developing countries. Washington, DC, USA: International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  31. Sah, R. P., & Gill, G. S. (2014). Policy recommendations for enhancing private sector investment in seed business in Nepal. Private sector seed report, IFPRI/USAID, Institute of Integrated Development Studies (IIDS), November 14, 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  32. Shrestha, P., Gezu, G., Swain, S., Lassaigne, B., Subedi, A., & De Boef, W. S. (2013). The community seed bank: A common driver for community biodiversity management. In W. S. De Boef, A. Subedi, N. Peroni & M. Thijssen (Eds.), Community biodiversity management: Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources. London, UK: Earthscan from Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Spielman, D. J., & Kennedy, A. (2016). Towards metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights form Asia’s seed Industry. Agricultural System, 147, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sthapit, B. (2013). Emerging theory and practice: Community seed banks, seed system resilience and food security. In P. Shrestha, R. Vernooy & P. Chaudhary (Eds.), Community seed banks in Nepal: Past, present, future. Proceedings of a National Workshop. LI-BIRD/USC Canada/Oxfam/The Development Fund/IFAD/Bioversity International, 14–15, June 2012, Pokhara, Nepal.Google Scholar
  35. SQCC. (2015). Notified varieties of crops in Nepal. Seed Quality Control Centre (SQCC), Ministry of Agriculture Development (MoAD), Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal.Google Scholar
  36. SQCC. (2016). Annual progress and third trimester review of FY 2016/17 (2072/73) of Seed Quality Control Centre (SQCC). A paper presented in third trimester and annual progress review and subcommittee meeting of development problem resolving Ministerial level meeting, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  37. SQCC. (2017). Proceedings National Seed Summit, September 14–15, 2015, Kathmandu. Seed Quality Control Centre (SQCC), Ministry of Agricultural Development, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  38. Stads, G.-J., Shrestha, H. K., Manandhar, H. K., & Gao, L. (2015). Agricultural R&D indicators factsheet, February 2015. Agricultural Science Technology Indicators (ASTI) led by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Nepal.Google Scholar
  39. Tripp, R. (2003). How to cultivate a commercial seed sector? Paper prepared for the symposium “Sustainable agriculture in the Sahel”. Bamako, Mali, December 1–5, 2003. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Google Scholar
  40. USAID. (2014). Enabling agricultural trade (EAT): Regional trade in seed, fertilizer and strategic grains—a review of the legal, regulatory and is intuitional constraints to growth across south Asia. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Nepal.Google Scholar
  41. Velasco, M. L., Tsusaka, T. W., & Yamano, T. (2013). Tracking of improved varieties in South Asia (TRIVSA). TRIVSA Synthesis Report on Rice. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  42. Vernooy, R., Bessette, G., & Rudebjer, P. (Eds.). (2016). Resource box for resilient seed systems: Handbook. Rome, Italy: Bioversity International.
  43. Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P., & Sthapit, B. (Eds.). (2015). Community seed banks: Origins, evolution and prospects. London: Routledge. Available
  44. Witcombe, J. R., Lal, K. K., & Joshi, K. D. (2008). Scoping study on adoption of rice varieties from Client-Oriented Breeding in the Nepal Rice Innovation System. Kathmandu, Nepal: CAZS Natural Resources, Bangor University.Google Scholar
  45. World Bank Group. (2016). Enabling the business of agriculture 2016: Comparing regulatory good practices. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioversity International Nepal OfficeKathmanduNepal

Personalised recommendations