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Myelin pp 43-51 | Cite as

Activity-Dependent Myelination

  • Daisuke Kato
  • Hiroaki WakeEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1190)

Abstract

Oligodendrocyte form myelin around the axons to regulate the conduction velocity. Myelinated axons are composed of white matter to act as cables to connect distinct brain regions. Recent human MRI studies showed that the signal from white matter change in the people with special skills such as taxi driver, piano player, and juggling. The change of the white matter suggested that (1) The plasticity of myelination depends on neuronal activity (activity-dependent myelination) and (2) White matter plasticity is essential for brain functions. In this session, we discussed that how the un-electrical components, oligodendrocytes, and its precursor cells receive the signal from electrically active neurons and differentiate, proliferate, and myelinate the axons to modulate the activity of neuronal circuits, ultimately affect on their behaviors. In this review, we highlight the physiological functions of oligodendrocyte and their neuronal activity-dependent functions and thus show new insight for their contribution to brain functions.

Keywords

Glial cells Oligodendrocytes Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells Myelination 

Abbreviations

AIS

Axonal initial segment

AMPAR

Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CNS

Central nervous system

DRG

Dorsal root ganglion

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GABAR

Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

MBP

Myelin basic protein

mGluR

Metabotropic glutamate receptor

NMDAR

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor

NRG1

Neuregulin1

OPCs

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

Pdgfra

Alpha receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

TTX

Tetrodotoxin

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency for Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (to H.W.), the Japan Science and Technology Agency for Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (to H.W.), Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research on Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 15H01300 (to H.W.) and 25110732 (to H.W.), and Grant-in-Aids for Young Scientists (A) 26710004 (to H.W.) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of System NeuroscienceKobe University Graduate School of MedicineKobeJapan
  2. 2.Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology AgencySaitamaJapan

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