Advertisement

Myelin pp 265-279 | Cite as

Therapeutic Strategies for Oligodendrocyte-Mediated Remyelination

  • Toru OgataEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1190)

Abstract

Given recent progress in our understanding of oligodendrocyte biology, significant attention has been directed toward cell therapy for myelin repair and remyelination. This trend has been reinforced by findings about the importance of white matter lesions in a variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including demyelinating diseases as well as brain or spinal cord trauma and degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Remyelination strategies include the implementation of myelin forming cells and the surrounding conditions and pathological disease context. Successful remyelination requires proper number of cells at the required location and subsequent maturation. Those processes involve variety of molecules, related to oligodendrocyte development or inflammation in the lesion. Understanding and manipulation of the functions of those molecules may improve the outcome of the cell therapies toward remyelination. Furthermore, the development of monitoring method for myelination is also anticipated to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Keywords

Transplantation Endogenous progenitors Naked axon Inflammation Pharmacological intervention Biomarkers Diffusion tensor imaging 

References

  1. Adachi Y, Oyama D, Kawai J, Kawabata S, Uehara G (2013) Spinal cord evoked magnetic field measurement using a magnetospinography system equipped with a cryocooler. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013:4426–4429.  https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610528 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett MH, Prineas JW (2004) Relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis: pathology of the newly forming lesion. Ann Neurol 55:458–468.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beattie MS, Farooqui AA, Bresnahan JC (2000) Review of current evidence for apoptosis after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 17:915–925.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2000.17.915 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergles DE, Richardson WD (2015) Oligodendrocyte development and plasticity. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 8:a020453.  https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a020453 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodini B et al (2016) Dynamic imaging of individual remyelination profiles in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 79(5):726–738.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.24620 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bothwell M (2017) Mechanisms and medicines for remyelination. Annu Rev Med 68:431–443.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-050715-104400 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruinsma IB et al (2017) Regulator of oligodendrocyte maturation, miR-219, a potential biomarker for MS. J Neuroinflammation 14:235.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-1006-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunge MB, Monje PV, Khan A, Wood PM (2017) From transplanting Schwann cells in experimental rat spinal cord injury to their transplantation into human injured spinal cord in clinical trials. Prog Brain Res 231:107–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.12.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Comabella M, Sastre-Garriga J, Montalban X (2016) Precision medicine in multiple sclerosis: biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Curr Opin Neurol 29:254–262.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000336 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Doi T, Ogata T, Yamauchi J, Sawada Y, Tanaka S, Nagao M (2017) Chd7 collaborates with Sox2 to regulate activation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 37:10290–10309.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1109-17.2017 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Domingues HS, Portugal CC, Socodato R, Relvas JB (2016) Oligodendrocyte, astrocyte, and microglia crosstalk in myelin development, damage, and repair. Front Cell Dev Biol 4:71.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2016.00071 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Dulamea AO (2017) The contribution of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to central nervous system repair in multiple sclerosis: perspectives for remyelination therapeutic strategies. Neural Regen Res 12:1939–1944.  https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.221146 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Fields RD (2015) A new mechanism of nervous system plasticity: activity-dependent myelination. Nat Rev Neurosci 16:756–767.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn4023 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Fujiyoshi K et al (2016) Application of q-space diffusion MRI for the visualization of white matter. J Neurosci 36:2796–2808.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1770-15.2016 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Harrison B (1985) Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination in lysolecithin-induced lesions in irradiated rat spinal cord. J Neurol Sci 67:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kawabata S et al (2016) Grafted human iPS cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells contribute to robust remyelination of demyelinated axons after spinal cord injury. Stem Cell Rep 6:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.11.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Keirstead HS, Nistor G, Bernal G, Totoiu M, Cloutier F, Sharp K, Steward O (2005) Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 25:4694–4705.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0311-05.2005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee Y et al (2012) Oligodendroglia metabolically support axons and contribute to neurodegeneration. Nature 487:443–448.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11314 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Lima C et al (2010) Olfactory mucosal autografts and rehabilitation for chronic traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 24:10–22.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968309347685 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lopez Juarez A, He D, Richard Lu Q (2016) Oligodendrocyte progenitor programming and reprogramming: toward myelin regeneration. Brain Res 1638:209–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.10.051 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. McTigue DM, Tripathi RB (2008) The life, death, and replacement of oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS. J Neurochem 107:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05570.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McTigue DM, Wei P, Stokes BT (2001) Proliferation of NG2-positive cells and altered oligodendrocyte numbers in the contused rat spinal cord. J Neurosci 21:3392–3400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mekhail M, Almazan G, Tabrizian M (2012) Oligodendrocyte-protection and remyelination post-spinal cord injuries: a review. Prog Neurobiol 96:322–339.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.01.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Okazaki R et al (2016) The crucial role of Erk2 in demyelinating inflammation in the central nervous system. J Neuroinflammation 13:235.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0690-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Powers BE, Lasiene J, Plemel JR, Shupe L, Perlmutter SI, Tetzlaff W, Horner PJ (2012) Axonal thinning and extensive remyelination without chronic demyelination in spinal injured rats. J Neurosci 32:5120–5125.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0002-12.2012 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Sampaio-Baptista C et al (2013) Motor skill learning induces changes in white matter microstructure and myelination. J Neurosci 33:19499–19503.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3048-13.2013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Shen S, Li J, Casaccia-Bonnefil P (2005) Histone modifications affect timing of oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation in the developing rat brain. J Cell Biol 169:577–589.  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200412101 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Swiss VA, Nguyen T, Dugas J, Ibrahim A, Barres B, Androulakis IP, Casaccia P (2011) Identification of a gene regulatory network necessary for the initiation of oligodendrocyte differentiation. PLoS One 6:e18088.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018088 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Yasuda A et al (2011) Significance of remyelination by neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Stem Cells 29:1983–1994.  https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.767 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation for the Movement FunctionsResearch Institute, National Rehabilitation CenterTokorozawaJapan

Personalised recommendations