Pesticides: Environmental Exposure, Toxicity, and Mechanism

  • Ranran Luo
  • Chunhua WuEmail author


Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests or weeds. The production and use of synthetic pesticides have been increasingly growing in recent years worldwide. Pesticides are designed to be toxic to specific groups of organisms, which bring benefits to humans. However, they have considerable adverse effects on other living creatures as well as environmental media including air, water, and soil. Pesticides can enter the human body via the skin, the mouth, and the lungs, thereby leading to diverse toxicity actions on humans. This chapter provides a brief overview of classification, toxicity, health effects, and environmental exposure of pesticides, as well as toxicity and mechanism of three major pesticides (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate pesticides).


Pesticides Environmental exposure Toxicity Toxicity mechanism 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of EducationFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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