Advertisement

Investigation of Electrochemical Micromachining Process Using Ultrasonic Heated Electrolyte

  • M. SoundarrajanEmail author
  • R. Thanigaivelan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)

Abstract

Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) is one of the important machining methods for fabrication of micro-components on alloys and composites materials. Fabrication of micro hole is the important micro-machined feature, which are used in many components that find application in various fields such as aerospace, automobile, power circuit board (PCB), Ink jet nozzle, and the electronics industries. In this research, micro-hole is generated on 300 µm thick copper workpiece using 460 µm diameter stainless steel electrode. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is considered as electrolyte and during machining process, the electrolyte is heated using Ultrasonic Vibration (USV). The experiments are planned according to L18 Orthogonal Array (OA) using the machining parameters such as electrolyte concentration, machining voltage, duty cycle, and electrolyte temperature. The machining parameters are optimized using Multi-Objective Optimization of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) method. Weight of each response is calculated using entropy method as wj for Material Removal Rate (MRR) = 0.4941 and wj for Overcut (OC) = 0.5051. The optimal combination obtained using MOORA is 30 g/l of electrolyte concentration, 9 V of machining voltage, 55% of duty cycle, and 36° of electrolyte temperature. According to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results, the machining voltage contributes about 55% of overall performance. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images are taken for the further understanding of micro-hole profile.

Keywords

Electrochemical Heated electrolyte Ultrasonic Entropy MOORA 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Government College of Engineering, Salem, for providing the SEM facilities. The authors thank the management of Muthayammal Engineering College, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, for the encouragement and support. The authors are grateful to the management of Sona College of Technology, Salem, for providing the optical microscope facilities to verify the overcut.

References

  1. 1.
    Venkatesh, V., Swain, N., Srinivas, G., Kumar, P., Barshilia, H.C.: Review on the machining characteristics and research prospects of conventional micro-scale machining operations. Mater. Manuf. Process. 32(3), 1042–6914 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2016.1151045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anasane, S.S., Bhattacharyya, B.: Electrochemical micromachining of titanium and its alloys. In: Kibria, G., Bhattacharyya, B., Davim, J. (eds.) Non-traditional Micromachining Processes. Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology. Springer, Cham (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhattacharyya, B., Malapati, M., Munda, J.: Influence of tool vibration on machining performance in electrochemical micro-machining of copper. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 47(2), 35–342 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2006.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu, W., Zhang, H., Luo, Z., Zhao, C., Ao, S., Gao, F., Sun, Y.: Electrochemical micromachining on titanium using the NaCl-containing ethylene glycol electrolyte. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 255, 784–794 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.01.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang, H., Ao, S., Liu, W., Luo, Z., Niu, W., Guo, K.: Electrochemical micro-machining of high aspect ratio micro-tools using quasi-solid electrolyte. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 91(9–12), 2965–2973 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9900-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guodong, L., Yong, L., Quancuna, K.: Selection and optimization of electrolyte for micro electrochemical machining on stainless steel 304. Procedia CIRP 42, 412–417 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sekar, T., Arularasu, M., Sathiyamoorthy, V.: Investigations on the effects of nano-fluid in ECM of die steel. Measurement 83, 38–43 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2016.01.035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jeykrishnan, J., Vijaya Ramnath, B.: Optimization of process parameters in electro-chemical machining (ECM) of D3 die steels using Taguchi technique. Mater. Today Proc. 4(8), 7884–7891 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.07.124Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thanigaivelan, R., Arunachalam, R.M., Kumar, M.: Performance of electrochemical micromachining of copper through infrared heated electrolyte. Mater. Manuf. Process. 33(4), 383–389 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2017.1279304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yaralioglu, G.: Ultrasonic heating and temperature measurement in microfluidic channels. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170 (1–2), 1–7 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2011.05.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Soundarrajan, M., Thanigaivelan, R.: Intervening variables in electrochemical micro machining for copper. In: International Conference on Precision, Meso, Micro and Nano Engineering (COPEN 10), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chakraborty, S.: Application of the MOORA method for decision making in manufacturing environment. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 54 (9–12), 1155–1166 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-010-2972-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Deconinck, D., Damme, S., Deconinck, J.: A temperature dependent multi-ion model for time accurate numerical simulation of the electrochemical machining process. Part II: Numerical simulation. Electrochimica Acta 69, 120–127 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2012.02.079CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMuthayammal Engineering College (Autonomous)Rasipuram, Namakkal (Dt)India
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMuthayammal Engineering College (Autonomous)Rasipuram, Namakkal (Dt)India

Personalised recommendations