Advertisement

Neuropharmacological Effect and Clinical Applications of Ganoderma (Lingzhi)

  • Xiangyu Cui
  • Yonghe ZhangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1182)

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi) is a kind of medical mushroom with various pharmacological compounds. It has been used for clinical applications for thousands of years as a highly nutritious and significantly effective medicinal herb. Compared with its immunomodulatory effect, there are a few studies on the neuropharmacological actions of Ganoderma, and the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. As far as we know, Ganoderma regulate the central nervous system (CNS) at least in part through its immunomodulatory activity. The neuropharmacological effects of G. lucidum mainly include but not limited to sedative and hypnotic, neuroprotective, antinociceptive and analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of G. lucidum in the patients with these disorders are still rare. To date, there are no Ganoderma-related drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this chapter, we will summarize and elucidate recent progress of such effects of Ganoderma and its ingredients from both the preclinical and clinical points of view.

Keywords

Ganoderma Sedative and hypnotic effects Neuroprotective effects Antinociceptive and analgesic effects Antiepileptic effects Antidepressant effects 

References

  1. 1.
    Cui XY, Zhang YH, Yang BX, Zhang GL, Li WD, Lin ZB (2015) Pharmacological effects of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) (II). In: Lin ZB (ed) Modern research on Ganoderma (Lingzhi), 4th edn. Peking University Medical Press, Beijing, pp 300–374Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Department of Pharmacology, Beijing Medical College (1974) Pharmacological research of G. lucidum I. Pharmacological research of G. lucidum fruiting body. J Beijing Med Coll 4:246–254Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Department of Pharmacology, Beijing Medical College (1975) Pharmacological research of G. lucidum II. Pharmacological research of G. lucidum liquid fermentation and ethanol extract of the mycelium. J Beijing Med Coll 1:16–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lin ZB, WU YC, Tian SZ, Wei WJ, Yang SF (1978) Pharmacological research of Ganoderma: pharmacological study of fermentation broth of Ganoderma sp. J Beijing Med Coll 4:216–221Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun L, Qiao YL, Sui ZJ, Zhang JY, Song XT, Wu XG (2013) Experimental research on the sleep promoting effects of G. lucidum spore powder. China Practical Med 8(30):250–251Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiang HT, Ren YH, Yu WY, Zhou QC, Shen B (2009) Study of sleep promoting and immunoregulation activity of G. lucidum extract and combination preparation. Edible Fungi 3:64–66Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shou WH, Gong BR, Fang YS, He ZP (2003) Effects of G. lucidum granules on sedation, hypnosis and immune function in mice. Chin Pharm 12:42–43Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dai WG, Dai WY (1993) The efficacy of G. lucidum. Edible Fungi China 12:12–13Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chu QP, Wang LE, Cui XY, Fu HZ, Lin ZB, Lin SQ, Zhang YH (2007) Extract of G. lucidum potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via a GABAergic mechanism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86(4):693–698Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang CH, Zhang JS, Nguyen DL, Hu J, Tang QJ, Feng N, Fan H (2011) Effects of G. lucidum extract on the re-uptake of Neurotransmitter GABA. In: International meeting on Ganoderma researchGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cui XY, Cui SY, Zhang J, Wang ZJ, Yu B, Sheng ZF, Zhang XQ, Zhang YH (2012) Extract of G. lucidum prolongs sleep time in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 139(3):796–800Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taishi P, Churchill L, Wang M, Kay D, Davis CJ, Guan X, De A, Yasuda T, Liao F, Krueger JM (2007) TNFalpha siRNA reduces brain TNF and EEG delta wave activity in rats. Brain Res 1156:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takahashi S, Kapas L, Fang J, Krueger JM (1995) An anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody suppresses sleep in rats and rabbits. Brain Res 690(2):241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kubota T, Li N, Guan Z, Brown RA, Krueger JM (2002) Intrapreoptic microinjection of TNF-alpha enhances non-REM sleep in rats. Brain Res 932(1–2):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang S, Mao J, Ding K, Zhou Y, Zeng X, Yang W, Wang P, Zhao C, Yao J, Xia P, Pei G (2017) Polysaccharides from G. lucidum promote cognitive function and neural progenitor proliferation in mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Stem Cell Rep 8(1):84–94Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sun XZ, Liao Y, Li W, Guo LM (2017) Neuroprotective effects of G. lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Neural Regen Res 12(6):953–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gokce EC, Kahveci R, Atanur OM, Gurer B, Aksoy N, Gokce A, Sargon MF, Cemil B, Erdogan B, Kahveci O (2015) Neuroprotective effects of G. lucidum polysaccharides against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats. Injury 46(11):2146–2155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou ZY, Tang YP, Xiang J, Wua P, Jin HM, Wang Z, Mori M, Cai DF (2010) Neuroprotective effects of water-soluble G. lucidum polysaccharides on cerebral ischemic injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 131(1):154–164Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guo YJ, Yuan H, Gan SW, Li L (2006) Protective effect of G. lucidum polysaccharide on the brain tissue of rat model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by β amyloid protein fragment 25-35. Chin J Histochem Cytochem 15(4):447–451Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lai CS, Yu MS, Yuen WH, So KF, Zee SY, Chang RC (2008) Antagonizing beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity of the anti-aging fungus G. lucidum. Brain Res 1190:215–224Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang Y, Luo J, Huang NH, Zhang XY (2012) Influence of G. lucidum triterpenoids on learning memory function and the activity of T-AOC of Alzheimer disease model animals. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm 27(9):2318–2321Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaur R, Singh V, Shri R (2017) Anti-amnesic effects of Ganoderma species: a possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism. Biomed Pharmacother 92:1055–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Choi YJ, Yang HS, Jo JH, Lee SC, Park TY, Choi BS, Seo KS, Huh CK (2015) Anti-amnesic effect of fermented G. lucidum water extracts by lactic acid bacteria on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. Prev Nutr Food Sci 20(2):126–132Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang GH, Wang LH, Wang C, Qin LH (2018) Spore powder of G. lucidum for the treatment of Alzheimer disease: A pilot study. Medicine (Baltimore) 97(19):e0636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen LW, Wang YQ, Wei LC, Shi M, Chan YS (2007) Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson’s disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 6(4):273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guo SS, Cui XL, Rausch WD (2016) G. lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP(+) and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress. Am J Neurodegener Dis 5(2):131–144Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ren ZL, Wang CD, Wang T, Ding H, Zhou M, Yang N, Liu YY, Chan P (2019) G. lucidum extract ameliorates MPTP-induced parkinsonism and protects dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress via regulating mitochondrial function, autophagy, and apoptosis. Acta Pharmacol Sin 40(4):441–450Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hsu KD, Cheng KC (2018) From nutraceutical to clinical trial: frontiers in Ganoderma development. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102(21):9037–9051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhao C, Zhang C, Xing Z, Ahmad Z, Li JS, Chang MW (2019) Pharmacological effects of natural Ganoderma and its extracts on neurological diseases: a comprehensive review. Int J Biol Macromol 121:1160–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang W, Zhang Q, Deng W, Li Y, Xing G, Shi X, Du Y (2014) Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with G. lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Neural Regen Res 9(15):1446–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC (2009) Part 3. neuropharmacology of neural systems and disorder. In: Molecular neuropharmacology: a foundation for clinical neuroscience. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 269–288Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koyama K, Imaizumi T, Akiba M, Kinoshita K, Takahashi K, Suzuki A, Yano S, Horie S, Watanabe K, Naoi Y (1997) Antinociceptive components of G. lucidum. Planta Med 63(3):224–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wan F, Huang D (1992) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of artificial and fermentative Ganoderma sinense (AFGS). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 17(10):619–622, 640Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hijikata Y, Yamada S (1998) Effect of G. lucidum on postherpetic neuralgia. Am J Chin Med 26(3–4):375–381Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hijikata Y, Yasuhara A, Sahashi Y (2005) Effect of an herbal formula containing G. lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial. Am J Chin Med 33(4):517–523Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang H, Wang SQ (2006) Effects of G. lucidum spores on NMDAR1 immunoreaction of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in seizures rats induced by pentylenetetrazol. Heilongjiang Med Pharm 29(1):11–13Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhao S, Kang YM, Zhang SC, Wang SQ, Wang SQ, Ma XR, Zhang T (2007) Effect of G. lucidum spores powder on the expression of IGF-1, NF-κB and apoptosis of nerve cells in the brain from epileptic rat. Chin J Pathophysiol 23(6):1153–1156Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang JG, Wang YQ, Zhang J (2012) The effect of Reishi mushroom powder on protection of amygdala lighting model rat neurons and its mechanism. Chin J Biochem Pharm 33(2):145–147Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang SQ, Li XJ, Zhou S, Sun DX, Wang H, Cheng PF, Ma XR, Liu L, Liu JX, Wang FF, Liang YF, Wu JM (2013) Intervention effects of G. lucidum spores on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons and expression of neurotrophin-4 and N-cadherin. PLoS One 8(4):e61687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang SQ, Li XJ, Qiu HB, Jiang ZM, Simon M, Ma XR, Liu L, Liu JX, Wang FF, Liang YF, Wu JM, Di WH, Zhou S (2014) Anti-epileptic effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides by inhibition of intracellular calcium accumulation and stimulation of expression of CaMKII alpha in epileptic hippocampal neurons. PLoS One 9(7):e102161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yang ZW, Wu F, Zhang SL (2016) Effects of ganoderic acids on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons: insights from alterations of BDNF, TRPC3 and apoptosis. Pharmazie 71(6):340–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang GH, Li X, Cao WH, Li J, Wang LH (2018) A retrospective study of G. lucidum spore powder for patients with epilepsy. Medicine (Baltimore) 97(23):e10941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Matsuzaki H, Shimizu Y, Iwata N, Kamiuchi S, Suzuki F, Iizuka H, Hibino Y, Okazaki M (2013) Antidepressant-like effects of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of G. lucidum mycelia in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 13:370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Socala K, Nieoczym D, Grzywnowicz K, Stefaniuk D, Wlaz P (2015) Evaluation of anticonvulsant, antidepressant-, and anxiolytic-like effects of an aqueous extract from cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom G. lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) in mice. Int J Med Mushrooms 17(3):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhao H, Zhang Q, Zhao L, Huang X, Wang J, Kang X (2012) Spore powder of G. lucidum improves cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy: a pilot clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012:809614Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologySchool of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations