Influence of Surgical Drill Geometry on Drilling Performance of Cortical and Trabecular Bone
Numerous orthopedic operations involve inserting screws and wires to attach plates, help align, and immobilize fractured bones, so that they may heal correctly. These operations require drilling into the bone so that screws can be used in the operation. Furthermore, the surgical tools require a large degree of flexibility to access the surgical sites in the complex shaped human joints. The flexibility feature on the surgical drills has an adverse effect on the capacity to transmit high bone drilling forces. Furthermore, prevention of necrosis or cell death is crucial for surgical interventions such as bone marrow stimulation, bone marrow donor recruitment, bone biopsies, or removal of osteosynthesis materials. The more efficient the drilling operation, the smaller the impact on the bone. This results in a healthier bone which enables implants to support higher loads with a greater chance of success. This research unveils the influence of surgical drill geometry, specifically the effect that the web dimensions have on drilling performance of cortical and trabecular bone. The drilling performance was analyzed through study of process parameters: thrust force, temperature rise, and surface finish of the drilled hole. A series of experiments were carried out on both Poly-methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and bovine bone test samples.
KeywordsSurgical drill Cortical and trabecular bone Web Gashing
The authors wish to thank Dr. A. Devlig, University of Cape Town, Medical school, Cape Town, South Africa, toward the supply of bovine tibia bone samples and for the insight on surgical drill-related issues while drilling the bones and tissues. Further thanks go to Mrs. Penny Louw for her assistance with the optical microscope and her help with surface roughness testing; Mrs. Miranda Waldron for her assistance with the scanning electron microscope; and Mr. Horst Emrich for his assistance with the milling machine. This project was supported by fund NRF grant: Incentive Funding for Rated Researchers (IPRR)—South Africa through Reference: IFR150204113619 and Grant No: 96066.
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