Study and Establishment of Manufacturing Process of Molybdenum Liners Using Warm Flow Forming Process

  • P. S. S. R. K. PrasadEmail author
  • Navneet Verma
  • Narendra Kumar
  • K. M. Rajan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)


Liners used in shaped charge help in achieving deeper penetration in target material. The penetration potential is directly proportional to square root of liner material density and maximum jet length. Studies reveal that molybdenum finds great potential for use as liners owing to its high sound speed and relatively high material density. The high sound speed helps in achieving high-velocity coherent jet tips which are important to attain higher jet length. The process of precise manufacturing of molybdenum liners is challenging. In this paper, warm flow forming has been attempted for the same, as molybdenum is difficult to form by cold working. Effect of warm working of the molybdenum material is studied. Design of blank and pre-form along with Press tools for making pre-form, rollers, mandrels, and tailstock support has been brought out. The process parameters such as speed and feed used in the process are explained in brief.


Warm flow forming Molybdenum liner Shaped charge 


  1. 1.
    Walter, W.P., Zukas, J.A.: Fundamentals of Shaped Charges. Wiley, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Poole, C.: Penetration of a Shaped Charge. Ph.D. Thesis, Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Held, Manfred: Liners for shaped charges. J. Battlefield Technol. 4(3), 1–6 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lichtenberger, A., Verstraete, N., SaIignon, D., Daumas, M.T., Collard, J.: Shaped charges with Molybdenum liner. In: 16th International Symposium on Ballistics San Francisco, C.A., USA, 23–28 September 1996Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker, E.L., Daniels, A., Pham, J., Vuong, T., DeFisher, S., Jet break-up characterization of Molybdenum shaped charge liners. US Army, Armament Research, Development and Engineering CenterGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baker, E.L., Voorhis, G.P., Campbell, R., Choi, C.S.: Development of Molybdenum shaped charge liners producing high ductility jets. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Baliistics, Quebec, Canada (1993)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gupta, C.K.: Extractive Metallurgy of Molybdenum. CRC Press (1992)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campbell, F.C.: Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys. ASM International (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhan, M., Yang, H., Guo, J., Wang, X.: Review on hot spinning for difficult-to-deform lightweight metals. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 25, 1732–1743 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roy, P.K.: An investigation on evaluation and optimisation of Process Parameters in Flow Forming. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pune, India (1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Armament Research and Development EstablishmentPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations