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Breaking the Transmission of TB: A Roadmap to Bridge the Gaps in Controlling TB in Endemic Settings

  • Pooja Singh
  • Jasmine Samal
  • Sheeba Zarin
  • Ravikrishnan Elangovan
  • Seyed E. Hasnain
  • Nasreen Z. EhteshamEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains an enormous health burden with nearly 2 billion people worldwide being affected by it, though only 10% progress to active disease. Currently around 58% of people infected with M.tb are being diagnosed and treated. The lack of a standard research setting and limited resource in terms of early diagnosis of TB lead to high incidence of transmission of TB infection in high-TB-burden countries. Therefore, early diagnosis of TB and an effective vaccination can primarily break the cycle of transmission of TB. Recommended diagnostic tests, currently available, have several limitations, making them unsuitable for resource-limited settings and remote areas. The healthcare settings are the highest risk zones for transmission of drug-resistant M.tb strains. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB is resilient to diagnosis and pose major complications to patient’s health during treatment. In order to limit the spread of MDR TB, we need to implement better diagnostic tools and health measures which may eventually interrupt transmission of M.tb from TB patients to uninfected individuals. Complete and correct execution of regime of anti-TB therapies at both the individual and community level could help in minimizing the transmission of TB. This chapter gives an insight on strategies that aid in interruption of transmission of TB, especially in high-TB-burden areas across the globe.

Keywords

Tuberculosis Transmission Mycobacterium tuberculosis Diagnosis Vaccine 

Abbreviations

BCG

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

GoI

Government of India

LPA

Line probe assays

LAMP

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification

MTB

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

MDR

Multidrug resistant

NSP

National Strategic Plan

NHP

Nonhuman primate

NAATs

Nucleic acid amplification tests

RNTCP

Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

RIF

Rifampin

TTD

Time to detection

TB

Tuberculosis

WHO

World Health Organization

XDR

Extensively drug resistant

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Singh
    • 1
  • Jasmine Samal
    • 2
  • Sheeba Zarin
    • 2
  • Ravikrishnan Elangovan
    • 3
  • Seyed E. Hasnain
    • 1
    • 4
  • Nasreen Z. Ehtesham
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.JH Institute of Molecular Medicine, Jamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Inflammation Biology and Cell Signaling LaboratoryICMR-National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital CampusNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemical Engineering and BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology-DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Dr Reddy’s Institute of Life SciencesUniversity of Hyderabad CampusHyderabadIndia

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