Cellular Stress Responses and Immunological Regulations During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

  • Nooruddin KhanEmail author
  • Gillipsie Minhas
  • K. Kala jyothi
  • Jyoti Sharma


Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). A high percentage of mortality and morbidity associated with TB has been reported globally with the highest number of cases reported in Asia. MTB is known to enter a state of dormancy and phenotypic drug resistance, when it is exposed to multiple stress conditions in the host microenvironment, and thereby it survives asymptomatically in latent phase in the host for decades and even for a lifetime. This raises the need for improved vaccine, drugs, and therapeutics, which could be achieved by a better understanding of the host-microbe interactions as well as immune responses during the infection. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of host cellular stress response pathways, such as unfolded protein response (UPR), oxidative stress response, integrated stress response (ISR), and autophagy during various infections. However, the role of these host stress response pathways during an MTB infection in the modulation of the immune response against the microbe is poorly understood. Therefore, through this chapter, we will highlight the cellular stress response pathways and various molecular mechanisms through which MTB influences the host innate as well as the adaptive immune response during infection, which might aid toward better design and development of therapeutics and vaccine candidates against TB.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Immune response Stress response ER stress 



antigen-presenting cells


activating transcription factor


bacille Calmette-Guerin


binding immunoglobulin protein


CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein


C-type lectin receptor


complement receptors


disability-adjusted life years


dendritic cells


eukaryotic initiation factor 2


endothelial nitric oxide synthase


endoplasmic reticulum


early secretory antigenic target 6 kDa






induced nitric oxide synthase


inositol-requiring enzyme 1


integrated stress response


c-Jun N-terminal kinases


microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3




mitogen-activated protein kinases


multidrug resistance


major histocompatibility complex


Mycobacterium tuberculosis


mammalian target of rapamycin or mechanistic target of rapamycin

NK cells

natural killer cells


NOD-like receptors


nitric oxide


nucleotide oligomerization domain


nitric oxide synthase


neuronal nitric oxide synthase


pathogen-associated molecular patterns


protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase


phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)


protein kinase R


pattern recognition receptors


rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol


RIG-I-like receptors


reactive oxygen species


surfactant protein A


stimulator of IFN genes




TANK-binding kinase 1


Toll-like receptors


tumor necrosis factor


unfolded protein response


World Health Organization


X-box-binding protein 1



This work has been supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India [BT/PR8624/MED/29/798/2013], the Nano Mission Council, Department of Science and Technology [DST No: SB/YS/LS-163/2013], and the University Grants Commission, Government of India [MRP-MAJOR-BIOT-2013-40689].

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nooruddin Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gillipsie Minhas
    • 1
  • K. Kala jyothi
    • 1
  • Jyoti Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and BioinformaticsSchool of Life Sciences, University of HyderabadHyderabadIndia

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