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Cellular Stress Responses and Immunological Regulations During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

  • Nooruddin KhanEmail author
  • Gillipsie Minhas
  • K. Kala jyothi
  • Jyoti Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). A high percentage of mortality and morbidity associated with TB has been reported globally with the highest number of cases reported in Asia. MTB is known to enter a state of dormancy and phenotypic drug resistance, when it is exposed to multiple stress conditions in the host microenvironment, and thereby it survives asymptomatically in latent phase in the host for decades and even for a lifetime. This raises the need for improved vaccine, drugs, and therapeutics, which could be achieved by a better understanding of the host-microbe interactions as well as immune responses during the infection. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of host cellular stress response pathways, such as unfolded protein response (UPR), oxidative stress response, integrated stress response (ISR), and autophagy during various infections. However, the role of these host stress response pathways during an MTB infection in the modulation of the immune response against the microbe is poorly understood. Therefore, through this chapter, we will highlight the cellular stress response pathways and various molecular mechanisms through which MTB influences the host innate as well as the adaptive immune response during infection, which might aid toward better design and development of therapeutics and vaccine candidates against TB.

Keywords

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Immune response Stress response ER stress 

Abbreviations

APC

antigen-presenting cells

ATF

activating transcription factor

BCG

bacille Calmette-Guerin

BiP

binding immunoglobulin protein

CHOP

CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein

CLR

C-type lectin receptor

CR

complement receptors

DALYs

disability-adjusted life years

DC

dendritic cells

eIF2

eukaryotic initiation factor 2

eNOS

endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

ESAT6

early secretory antigenic target 6 kDa

IFN

interferon

IL

interleukin

iNOS

induced nitric oxide synthase

IRE1

inositol-requiring enzyme 1

ISR

integrated stress response

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinases

LC3

microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinases

MDR

multidrug resistance

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MTB

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

mTOR

mammalian target of rapamycin or mechanistic target of rapamycin

NK cells

natural killer cells

NLR

NOD-like receptors

NO

nitric oxide

NOD

nucleotide oligomerization domain

NOS

nitric oxide synthase

nNOS

neuronal nitric oxide synthase

PAMPs

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PERK

protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase

PI3P

phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)

PKR

protein kinase R

PRR

pattern recognition receptors

RIPE

rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol

RLR

RIG-I-like receptors

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SPA

surfactant protein A

STING

stimulator of IFN genes

TB

tuberculosis

TBK1

TANK-binding kinase 1

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

UPR

unfolded protein response

WHO

World Health Organization

XBP1

X-box-binding protein 1

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India [BT/PR8624/MED/29/798/2013], the Nano Mission Council, Department of Science and Technology [DST No: SB/YS/LS-163/2013], and the University Grants Commission, Government of India [MRP-MAJOR-BIOT-2013-40689].

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nooruddin Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gillipsie Minhas
    • 1
  • K. Kala jyothi
    • 1
  • Jyoti Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and BioinformaticsSchool of Life Sciences, University of HyderabadHyderabadIndia

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