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Bacterial Quorum Sensing: Biofilm Formation, Survival Behaviour and Antibiotic Resistance

  • Ramesh SubramaniEmail author
  • Mani Jayaprakashvel
Chapter
  • 430 Downloads

Abstract

Biofilms are association of microorganisms that attach to each other to a surface enclosed in a self-generated extracellular matrix. Virtually (99.9%) all microorganisms have the competence to form biofilm. The formation of biofilm is a complex process, in which bacterial cells transform from planktonic cells to sessile mode of growth. The biofilm development results from the expression of specific genes. Biofilms have been developed as an adaptive strategy of bacterial species to survive in adverse environmental conditions as well as to establish antagonistic or beneficial interactions with their host. Molecular interaction and details of biofilm formation are not well-understood as bacteria in the biofilm have several orders of magnitude, more resistant to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Thus, the currently available drugs typically failed to target bacterial biofilms. Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of intercellular signalling or cell-cell communication and a vital regulatory mechanism for coordinating biofilm formation including common activities and physiological processes such as symbiosis, formation of spores or fruiting bodies, antibiotics synthesis, genetic competence, apoptosis and virulence in many bacterial species using extracellular QS signalling molecules, which is often referred to as autoinducers (AIs). Microorganisms produce a wide variety of QS signalling molecules that can be self-recognized in a concentration-dependent manner and subsequently induce or suppress expression of QS-controlled genes. Bacterial QS regulation is established through a wide range of signals such as oligopeptides, N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), furanosyl borate, hydroxy palmitic acid methyl ester and methyldodecanoic acid. In this chapter, we highlight the current understanding of the processes that lead to bacterial biofilm formation, survival behaviours and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.

Keywords

Biofilm Quorum sensing Antibiotic resistance Quorum quenchers Acyl homoserine lactone Microbial communication 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology & EnvironmentThe University of the South PacificSuvaRepublic of Fiji
  2. 2.Department of Marine BiotechnologyAMET deemed to be UniversityKanathur, ChennaiIndia

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