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Perspectives and Molecular Understanding of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells

  • L. Saikrishna
  • Prameswari Kasa
  • Saimila Momin
  • L. V. K. S. BhaskarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal, malignant cancer that bears high mortality rates. Due to its lack of noticeable symptoms, it is often diagnosed late and current pancreatic cancer therapies are ineffective with poor prognosis. Despite the high mortality and poor survival of PC patients, there is limited information on factors propagating resistance. Resistance to standard therapies in pancreatic cancer patients is partly associated with the presence of a subpopulation of highly plastic “stem-like” cells (pancreatic cancer stem cells: paCSC) in tumors. In this connection, it is important to have a strong understanding of the paCSC population, especially its distinct characteristics, in order to engineer new therapies to target these resistant cells. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to highlight and discuss PaCSC and their specific surface markers. Overall, in this study, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ISI Proceedings for observational studies relating to the PaCSC and PC. Pancreatic cancer stem cells exhibit specific immune characteristics on their surface. The CD133, CD44, CD24, ALDH1, c-Met, DCLK1, CXCR4, EpCAM and ABCG2 are prominent Pa-CSC markers. As PaCSCs drive tumorigenesis and metastasis, their manipulation approaches would have widespread clinical implications and hence improve outcomes in pancreatic cancer.

Keywords

Cancer stem cells Pancreatic cancer Stem cell markers Signaling cascades 

Abbreviations

15-PGDH

15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase

5-FU

5-fluorouracil

ABCG2

ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2

ADLH

Aldehyde dehydrogenase

ALCAM

leukocyte cell adhesion molecule

CSCs

Cancer stem cells

CXCR4

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4

DCLK1

Doublecortin-like kinase 1

EMT

Epithelial mesenchymal transition

EpCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

HA

hyaluronic acid

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

mRNA

Messenger RNA

nab-paclitaxel

albumin-bound paclitaxel

NETs

Neuroendocrine tumors

NOD/SCID

nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency

PaCSCs

Pancreatic cancer stem cells

PC

Pancreatic cancer

PDAC

pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

PDX1

pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1

SP

side-population

TME

Tumor microenvironment

Notes

Conflict of Interest

There are no conflicts of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Saikrishna
    • 1
  • Prameswari Kasa
    • 2
  • Saimila Momin
    • 3
  • L. V. K. S. Bhaskar
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyVisvodaya Government Degree CollegeVenkatagiriIndia
  2. 2.Dr. LV Prasad Diagnostics and Research LaboratoryHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer InstituteEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Guru Ghasidas VishwavidyalayaBilaspurIndia

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