Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Initiation and Progression of Pancreatic Cancer

  • Madanraj Appiya SantharamEmail author
  • Vignesh Dhandapani


It is essential to identify different targets for pancreatic cancer (PC) as it is asymptomatic until it has metastasized to other organs. After which time, the convention methods to control cancer such as surgery and chemotherapy is no longer an option. Over the years, it has been noted that the inflammation is a major cause of initiation of pancreatitis, leading to cancer. Various inflammatory cytokines initiate and play a role in progression of this cancer. In this chapter, we will be discussing about major inflammatory cytokines that have been identified over the years. For each cytokine, we will be looking at the source of the cytokines, the signaling mechanism of that cytokine, its role in other cancers followed by pancreatic cancer. Since the survival of many diagnosed PC patients are limited to months, understanding the origins and basic cascades of these different cytokines could better help in identifying the targets and developing different therapeutic approaches in screening of the patients with this disease.


Cytokines Pancreatic Cancer Inflammation Extra-cellular Matrix Interleukins 



Activating Protein 1


Antigen Presenting Cells


Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase


BCL2 Associated Death Promoter


Bone Morphogenetic Protein


Cancer Associated Fibroblasts


Cluster of Differentiation


Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine


Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor


Dendritic Cells


Extra Cellular Matrix


Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition


Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases


Fas-Associated protein with Death Domain


Growth and Differentiation Factors


Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor


Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor




IκB Kinase




Janus Kinase


c-Jun N-terminal Kinase


Latency-Associated Peptide


Leukemia Inhibitory Factory


Large Latent Complex


Latent TGF-β Binding Proteins


Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases


Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells


Major Histocompatibility Complex


Mixed-Lineage Protein Kinases


Matrix Metalloproteinase


Nuclear Factor-κB


Natural Killer


Oncostatin M


Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia


Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma


Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase


Pancreatic Stellate Cells


Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog


Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products


Receptor Interacting Protein


Reactive Oxygen Species


Receptor Tyrosine Kinase


STAT Binding Elements


Severe Combined Immunodeficiency


Smooth Muscle Actin


Small Mothers Against Decapentaplegic


Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling


Silencer of Death Domain protein


Serum Response Factor


Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription


TGF-β-Activated Kinase


Transforming Growth Factor


Tumor Microenvironment


Tumor Necrosis Factor


TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain protein


TNF Receptor-Associated Factor


Regulatory T-cells


Tyrosine Kinase


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madanraj Appiya Santharam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vignesh Dhandapani
    • 2
  1. 1.University of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Technische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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