Substorm-Related ULF Waves and Their Interaction with Ions from Different Sources
Based on a long-term magnetic field measurements from ground stations, the irregular fast-damped ULF waves in the period of 40–150 s were termed as Pi2 at the 13th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) (Jacobs et al. in J Geophys Res 69(1):180–181, 1964, ), which is still in use today. Pi2 are usually associated with substorm activities (Saito in Space Sci Rev 10:319–412, 1969, ), and their energy is released during a magnetotail dipolarization process (Takahashi et al. in J Geophys Res 100(A11):21,929C21,941, 1995, ).
- 15.Yang B et al (2011) Pitch angle evolutions of oxygen ions driven by storm time ULF poloidal standing waves. J Geophys Res 116:A03207. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA016047