Nanoformulations Based on Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptides: The Future of Agriculture

  • Lidiane Maria de Andrade
  • Débora de Oliveira
  • Cristiano José de Andrade


Currently, phytopathogens still impact on all agriculture systems, which lead to economic losses worldwide. In this sense, synthetic pesticides have been intensively used, despite being persistent organic pollutants (environmental hazard). However, eco-friendly alternatives have been exhaustively investigated, in which Bacillus subtilis lipopeptides such as surfactin, iturin, and fengycin families have risen to prominence. The chemical amphiphilic structure of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin families is composed, basically, of a cyclic peptide linked to fatty acid chain, β-OH (lactone), β-NH2 (lactam), and β-OH (lactone), respectively. The peptide moiety of surfactin and iturin families contains a heptapeptide whereas fengycin family a decapeptide. It is worth noting that subtle chemical structural differences are the key for biological activities of lipopeptides such as antimicrobial agents. Regarding B. subtilis lipopeptides as (bio)controllers of plant diseases, they were first studied due to their antagonistic activity against a wide range of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. However, they also have significant effects on soil microbiota (rhizosphere). This chapter highlights the key features in B. subtilis lipopeptides as eco-friendly controllers of fruit pathogens such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (mango, avocado, and papaya), Penicillium expansum (apple), Penicillium digitatum (citrus fruits), and Botrytis cinerea (strawberry), among others. In addition, it puts a light on the main perspectives of nanoformulations based on Bacillus subtilis lipopeptides such as partial replacement of chemical pesticides by Bacillus spp. lipopeptides; and the relationship between antimicrobial properties and nanoformulations.


Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptides Pesticides Tropical fruits 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidiane Maria de Andrade
    • 1
  • Débora de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Cristiano José de Andrade
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Recycling, Waste Treatment and Extraction (LAREX), Department of Chemical Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering & Food Engineering, Technological CenterFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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