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Lung Cancer: Old Story, New Modalities!

  • Urmi Chatterji
Chapter

Abstract

Lung diseases, leading to lung cancer, are incommodious maladies often leading to dire patient prognosis and death all over the world. Lung cancer 5-year survival rate is only 15%. Death due to lung cancer alone is comparable to deaths due to breast, pancreas, colon, and oral cancers together. Lung cancer preferentially occurs in people who are 65 or older. A minority of patients diagnosed with the disease are younger than 45. Different treatment modalities have been implemented for treatment of lung disorders over the past three decades, and modernization of strategies has brought hope for the affected. Counteracting oxidative stress has been of major concern for treating lung cancer, though with limitations. Cancer stem cells, a subpopulation of cells within a tumor, are believed to confer resistance to standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Several studies have investigated the specific mechanisms of tumor recurrence driven by cancer stem cells; however, oxidative stress and cellular metabolism are often neglected attributes. Metabolism of cancer stem cells is still poorly understood and constitutes a promising area in cancer research. Distinct metabolic phenotypes in these cells depend on the type of cancer, the model system used, or the experimental design; however, controversies still need to be resolved. Specific alterations in metabolite levels and metabolic enzymes that regulate cancer stemness need to be verified, as does the long noncoding RNAs which modulate the expression of several factors which modulate oxidative stress. Identifying the role of metabolism in conferring resistance to therapy, mostly by the presence of cancer stem cells, is an opportunity for designing novel therapeutic targets, which will eliminate this resistant population, and additionally eradicating the whole tumor to a relapse-free condition and better patient prognosis.

Keywords

Cancer stem cells Treatment modalities Oxidative stress Metabolic criteria Novel therapeutics 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urmi Chatterji
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Research Lab, Department of ZoologyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

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