World-Wide Dispersion of Research and Development (R&D) Capabilities

  • Takabumi HayashiEmail author
  • Atsuho Nakayama


This paper examines to what extent research and development (R&D) capabilities have geographically disseminated and dispersed worldwide, analyzing scientific papers and patents as R&D outputs. As a result, global dispersion was revealed using Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient, in the main field of scientific journals from INSPEC; Physics, Electrical Engineering, Electronics, computer and control engineering including Information Technology, and Mechanical engineering. In the case that we examine foreign invented US patents excluding domestically invented patents in the US, we can see geographical dispersion among nationalities since 1990, among others, much more than all the US patents including domestically invented patents in the US. Herfindahl-Hirschman (HH) indicator also shows the decline in the degree of the concentration ratio. The results obtained in this paper is that the number of nationalities of authors’ affiliation and that of nationalities of affiliations of U.S. patent inventors have increased and diversified. Especially, R&D capabilities measured by nationalities of authors’ affiliation remarks that point, rather than by those of US patent inventors, which means that more and more countries have improved R&D capabilities, “R” in particular.


Research and development capability Global dispersion of R&D capabilities Scientific paper US patent Lorenz curve Gini coefficient Herfindahl-Hirschman index 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rikkyo UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Marketing Sience, Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityTokyoJapan

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