Lead-in Study 2: The ERA Macro-structural Development in Civil Engineering (CE) and Applied Linguistics (AL)

  • (Kathy) Ling LinEmail author
Part of the Corpora and Intercultural Studies book series (COINST, volume 5)


In the preceding chapter, a cross-sectional study of macro-structure of ERAs in as many as 39 disciplines in social sciences, humanities, applied sciences and engineering was reported on, and discussed. The study found a number of often-used structural patterns other than the classic IMRD framework, e.g., those with an independent LR section used. To provide further justifications for the focused study of the introductory phase consisting of both Introduction and Literature Review sections, this chapter presents an analysis of the recent macro-structural development of ERAs in the two representative disciplines (viz., AL and CE) over the past thirty years (1980–2010). A particular focus is placed on the evolution of the structural forms of their introductory phases. The related textual findings derived will be complemented with and illuminated by our interviewees’ valuable insights on how to structure the ERA in these two studied disciplines and whether and when they would use a discrete LR section. Therefore, both insightful textual findings on structural changes and related cross-disciplinary variations, and insiders’ accounts contribute together to our better understanding of the disciplinary structural practices and raise questions about the current research-writing pedagogical practice and materials writing.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Foreign LanguagesShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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