Particles Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

  • Xin Zhang
Part of the Current Topics in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine book series (CTEHPM)


Indoor air quality is a growing concern in the recent years as we spend the majority of time indoors. According to the Exposure Factors Handbook, adults in the USA spend approximately 80% of their time indoors. Among all the indoor air pollutants, particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been considered as the major risk factors for ill health and death. The idea that indoor PM, NO2, and SO2 can cause or exacerbate human diseases is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades. The epidemiological study has convincingly indicated that exposure to PM, SO2, and NO2 are associated with acute and chronic adverse health effects, including changes in lung function and asthma attacks, respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions, mortality and morbidity, particularly among elderly and people with previous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Since air pollution is a complex mixture of compounds, and health effects are not universally observed following single exposure, further researches should focus on how to assess the association between combination of indoor air pollutants and health. Besides, more intervention should be involved to provide valid basis for protecting public health, especially for children.


Human health Indoor Particles matter Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental ScienceShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina

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