Taxonomic Inventory of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Jammu and Kashmir State

  • Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo
  • Shahid Ali Akbar
  • Ulfat Jan
  • Ghulam Mustafa Shah
Part of the Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation book series (TOBC, volume 18)


This chapter presents the first ever taxonomic inventory of ant species recorded from the Jammu and Kashmir State. The inventory is based on relevant scientific literature and museum collections, combined with data obtained from the field surveys since 2008. In total, there are 198 ant taxa (species and subspecies) representing 54 genera in 7 subfamilies recorded from Jammu and Kashmir. Looking ahead, the study clearly highlights that much research efforts are required to document the unknown ant diversity of this Himalayan region.


Ants Formicidae Hymenoptera Distribution Jammu and Kashmir State 



Sincere thanks are due to Dr. Irfan Gul for providing the distributional records of some unpublished taxa in Jammu and Kashmir. We are also thankful to AntWeb (, AntMaps ( and AntWiki ( for their immensely useful work.


  1. AntWeb (2017) Accessed online at Accessed 13 July 2017
  2. Baroni Urbani C (1977) Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae Genus Stenamma, con una nuova specie del Kashmir. Entomol Basil 2:415–422Google Scholar
  3. Bharti H (2008) Altitudinal diversity of ants in Himalayan regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 52(2):305–322Google Scholar
  4. Bharti H, Gul I (2014) First description of the male caste of the Himalayan endemic ant Lasius alienoflavus Bingham, 1903 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with re-description of the female and queen castes. Biodivers Data J 2:e1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bharti H, Kumar R (2013) Six New Species of Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Restructuring of World Species Groups and a Key to Indian Species. J Entomol Res Soc 15(1):47–67Google Scholar
  6. Bharti H, Sharma YP (2011a) Myrmica elmesi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) a new species from Himalaya. ZooKeys 124:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bharti H, Sharma YP (2011b) Myrmica longisculpta, a new species from Himalaya. Acta Entomol Mus Nat Pragae 51:723–729Google Scholar
  8. Bharti H, Sharma YP (2011c) Myrmica radchenkoi, a new species of ant from Indian Himalaya. Sociobiology 58(2):427–434Google Scholar
  9. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA (2012a) First record of Prionopelta kraepelini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India, with description of male caste. Sociobiology 59(3):815–821Google Scholar
  10. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA (2012b) Prenolepis fisheri, an intriguing new ant species, with a re-description of Prenolepis naoroji (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. J Ent Res Soc 14(1):119–126Google Scholar
  11. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA (2012c) First record of the genus Myopias (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from India, with description of New species. Vestn Zool 46(1):e33–e35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA (2013a) Two new species of trap jaw ant Anochetus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to known species from India. J Asia Pac Entomol 16:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA (2013b) Cryptopone subterranea sp. nov., a rare new cryptobiotic ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. Asian Myrmecol 5:1–4Google Scholar
  14. Bharti H, Gul I, Sharma YP (2012a) Pseudolasius machhediensis, a new ant species from Indian Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 59:805–813Google Scholar
  15. Bharti H, Gul I, Schulz A (2012b) Three new species of genus Temnothorax (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Indian Himalayas with a revised key to the Indian species. Acta Zool Acad Sci Hung 58:325–336Google Scholar
  16. Bharti H, Sharma YP, Bharti M, Pfeiffer M (2013a) Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecol 5:79–101Google Scholar
  17. Bharti H, Kumar R, Dubovikoff DA (2013b) A new species of the genus Tapinoma Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera Formicidae) from India. Caucasian Entomol Bull 9(2):303–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bharti H, Gul I, Dubovikoff DA (2014) First description of male of Cataglyphis cugiai Menozzi, 1939 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Himalaya, with notes on the species ecology and biodiversity conservation of the region. Caucasian Entomol Bull 10(1):137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bharti H, Akbar SA, Wachkoo AA, Singh J (2015) Taxonomic studies on Indian ants of genus Hypoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecol 7:1–15Google Scholar
  20. Bharti H, Sasi S, Radchenko A (2016) Biogeography and Ecology of Myrmica species (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Himalayan regions. Sociobiology 63(3):956–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bharti H, Wachkoo AA, Kumar R (2017) First Inventory of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Northwestern Shivalik, India. Halteres 8:33–68Google Scholar
  22. Bingham CT (1903) The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. 2: Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis, London. 506 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Bolton B (1974) New synonymy and a new name in the ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith (Hym., Formicidae). Entomol Mon Mag 109:172–180Google Scholar
  24. Bolton B (1977) The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist 36:67–151Google Scholar
  25. Bolton B (1988) A new socially parasitic Myrmica, with a reassessment of the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst Entomol 13:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bolton B (1994) Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 222 pGoogle Scholar
  27. Bolton B (2017) An online catalog of the ants of the world. Available at: Accessed 8 Oct 2017.
  28. Chapman JW, Capco SR (1951) Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr Inst Sci Technol Manila 1:1–327Google Scholar
  29. Collingwood CA (1982) Himalayan ants of the genus Lasius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst Entomol 7:283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Donisthorpe H (1930) A new subspecies of Acanthomyops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Kashmir. Ann Mag Nat Hist 10(6):225–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DuBois MB (1998) A revision of the ant genus Stenamma in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 32:193–403Google Scholar
  32. Emery C (1913) Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1–50Google Scholar
  33. Emery C (1925) Revision des espèces paléarctiques du genre Tapinoma. Rev Suisse Zool 32:45–64Google Scholar
  34. Ettershank G (1966) A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust J Zool 14:73–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Forel A (1886) Indian ants of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, No. 2. J Asiat Soc Bengal Part II Nat Sci 55:239–249Google Scholar
  36. Forel A (1894) Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IV. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 8:396–420Google Scholar
  37. Forel A (1902) Myrmicinae nouveaux de l'Inde et de Ceylan. Rev Suisse Zool 10:165–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Forel A (1903) Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 14:679–715Google Scholar
  39. Forel A (1904) Miscellanea myrmécologiques. Rev Suisse Zool 12:1–52Google Scholar
  40. Forel A (1906) Les fourmis de l’Himalaya. Bull Soc Vaudoise Sci Nat 42:79–94Google Scholar
  41. Gul I (2013) Taxonomic studies on select Ant Taxa (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) restricted to high altitude regions of north-west Himalaya. PhD thesis, Punjabi University, Patiala, Department of Zoology and Environmental SciencesGoogle Scholar
  42. Heterick BE (2009) A guide to the ants of South-western Austalia. Rec Aus Mus Suppl 76:1–206Google Scholar
  43. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 732 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu X, Xu ZH (2011) Three new species of the ant genus Stenamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Himalaya and the Hengduan Mountains with a revised key to the known species of the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. Sociobiology 58:733–748Google Scholar
  45. Mani MS, Singh S (1962) Entomological survey of Himalaya. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 59(1):84–85Google Scholar
  46. Menozzi C (1939) Formiche dell’Himalaya e del Karakorum raccolte dalla Spedizione italiana comandata da S. A. R. il Duca di Spoleto (1929). Atti Soc Ital Sci Nat Mus Civ Stor Nat Milano 78:285–345Google Scholar
  47. Radchenko A, Elmes GW (1999) Ten new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Vestn Zool 33(3):27–46Google Scholar
  48. Radchenko A, Elmes GW (2001) A taxonomic revision of the ant genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 from the Himalaya (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol Basil 23:237–276Google Scholar
  49. Radchenko A, Elmes GW (2009) Taxonomic revision of the pachei species-group of the genus Myrmica Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann Zool (Warsaw) 59:67–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seifert B (1992) A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the ant subgenus Lasius s.str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Abh Ber Naturkundemus Görlitz 66(5):1–67Google Scholar
  51. Seifert B (2004) The “Black Bog Ant” Formica picea Nylander, 1846 – a species different from Formica candida Smith, 1878 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol Nachr 6:29–38Google Scholar
  52. Seifert B, Schultz R (2009) A taxonomic revision of the Formica subpilosa Ruzsky, 1902 group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol News 12:67–83Google Scholar
  53. Shattuck SO (1994) Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Univ Calif Publ Entomol 112:i–xix, 1–241Google Scholar
  54. Stärcke A (1935) Zoologie. Formicidae. Wiss Ergeb Niederl Exped Karakorum 1:260–269Google Scholar
  55. Thapa VK (2000) An inventory of Nepal’s insects, vol III. IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu, xi + 475 pGoogle Scholar
  56. Wachkoo AA (2015) New status of the ant Camponotus mutilarius Emery, 1893 stat. nov. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J Asia Pac Biodivers 8:382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wachkoo AA, Akbar SA (2016) First description of the sexuals of Camponotus opaciventris Mayr, 1879 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with notes on distribution in Western Himalaya. Biodivers Data J 4:e10464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wachkoo AA, Bharti H (2014) First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biodivers Data J 2:e116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wachkoo AA, Bharti H (2015a) Taxonomy and distribution of the ant Cataglyphis setipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biodivers Data J 3:e4447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wachkoo AA, Bharti H (2015b) Taxonomic review of ant genus Nylanderia Emery, 1906 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in India. J Asia Pac Entomol 8:105–120Google Scholar
  61. Wachkoo AA, Maqbool A, Akbar SA, Sharaf M (2018) A new species of the ant genus Leptogenys Roger,1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. Biodivers Data J 6:e25016Google Scholar
  62. Wheeler WM (1922) Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VIII. A synonymic list of the ants of the Ethiopian region. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 45:711–1004Google Scholar
  63. Wilson EO (1955) A monographic revision of the ant genus Lasius. Bull Mus Comp Zool 113:1–201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo
    • 1
  • Shahid Ali Akbar
    • 2
  • Ulfat Jan
    • 3
  • Ghulam Mustafa Shah
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyGovernment Degree CollegeShopianIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant Protection, Department of EntomologyCentral Institute of Temperate HorticultureSrinagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations