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Agronomic Cropping Systems in Relation to Climatic Variability

  • Muhammad Sami Ul Din
  • Iftikhar Ahmad
  • Nazim Hussain
  • Ashfaq Ahmad
  • Aftab Wajid
  • Tasneem Khaliq
  • Muhammad MubeenEmail author
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Amjed Ali
  • Rida Akram
  • Khizer Amanet
  • Mazhar Saleem
  • Wajid Nasim
Chapter

Abstract

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time in a unit area, or it indicates the yearly sequence and spatial arrangements of crops and fallows in an area. The cropping system should provide enough food for the family and fodder for cattle and generate sufficient cash income for domestic and cultivation expenses. Cropping pattern plays a vital role in determining the level of agricultural production, which in turn would reflect on the agricultural economy of an area. A change in cropping pattern would mean a change in the proportionate area under different crops. A radial orientation of the cropping pattern may be affected by changes in agrarian policy, improvements in technology, availability of agricultural inputs, etc. The cropping patterns of a region are closely influenced by the geo-climatic, socioeconomic, historical, and political factors. Cropping systems based on climate, soil, and water availability have to be evolved for realizing the potential production levels through efficient use of available resources. Climate variability is one of the most significant factors influencing year-to-year crop production as well as cropping pattern. Climate variability is a major reason behind the shifting of cropping patterns and also influences the management practices for sustainable agriculture outputs. Similarly, increase in the temperature especially in winter had caused wheat productivity to decline. Remote sensing and GIS techniques play an important role to study the cropping patterns over a long period of time in the specific location. Through normalized vegetative index (NDVI) values, we can prepare cropping pattern maps. However, adaptations to climate change like agronomic manipulations, sustainable climate-resilient agriculture, shifting the planting dates, and using short-duration crop cultivars can reduce vulnerabilities.

Keywords

Climate variability Cropping system Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Sami Ul Din
    • 1
  • Iftikhar Ahmad
    • 1
  • Nazim Hussain
    • 2
  • Ashfaq Ahmad
    • 3
  • Aftab Wajid
    • 4
  • Tasneem Khaliq
    • 4
  • Muhammad Mubeen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 1
  • Amjed Ali
    • 5
  • Rida Akram
    • 1
  • Khizer Amanet
    • 1
  • Mazhar Saleem
    • 1
  • Wajid Nasim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Program Chair, Climate Change, US.-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food SecurityUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Agro-Climatology Lab, Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  5. 5.University College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

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