Climatic Variability and Agronomic Cropping Pattern

  • ImranEmail author
  • Amanullah
  • Abdul Bari
  • Hamayoon Khan
  • Roshan Ali


When the climate changes, so does the weather. We can get bad weather without climate change, but we can’t get climate change without the weather changing too. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes (e.g., heat waves), changes in pests and diseases, changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations, changes in the nutritional quality of some foods, and changes in sea level. Climate change is already affecting agriculture, with effects unevenly distributed across the world. Climate changes have affected agriculture for thousands of years and will continue to do so. My experience as a farmer and as an agronomist through wet and dry cycles in semiarid of KP Pakistan is of diversity. As a professional agronomist, to minimize cropping risks, crop diversity should be adopted to overcome on food security and lessen the impact of climate change. As an economist looking at countries with individual businesses, diversity minimizes risks. As a societal explorer, civilizations, animals, and plants have come and gone without diversification in a changing environment. I would suggest that climate change effects should be overcome by diversity. The climate change is not unique in nature. It is multifaceted gradual changes over period of time. So far as the agronomic crop and cropping pattern is concerned, it varies from situation to situation.


Climate change Forecasting Yield Cropping pattern Diversity Greenhouse gases Aerosols Denitrification Methane Methanogenesis 


  1. Abbot CG (1910) The solar constant of radiation. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, p 319Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman T, Stokes G (2003) The atmospheric radiation measurement program. Phys Today 56:38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adkins JF (1998) Deep-sea coral evidence for rapid change in ventilation of the deep North Atlantic 15,400 years ago. Science 280:725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anwar I, Babar I, Asad AK, Imran, Wajid AS, Mohammad I, Wajid AK, Ikramullah, Wasim A (2016) Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of improved varieties for enhancing phenological traits of wheat. Pure Appl Biol 5(3):511–519. Scholar
  5. Barnett TP, Hasselmann K, Chelliah M, Delworth T, Hegerl G (1999) Detection and attribution of recent climate change: a status report. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80(12):2631–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnola JM, Raynaud D, Korotkevich YS, Lorius C (1987) Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battle M (1996) Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firm at South Pole. Nature 383:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender M (1996) Variability in the O-2/N-2 ratio of southern hemisphere air, 1991–1994: implications for the carbon cycle. Global Biogeochem Cycles 1:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger A, Loutre MF, Gallée H (1998) Sensitivity of the LLN climate model to the astronomical and CO2 forcings over the last 200kyr. Clim Dyn 14:615–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imran (2015) Effect of germination on proximate composition of two maize cultivars. J Bio Agric H. care ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Google Scholar
  11. Imran (2017) Climate change is a real fact confronting to agricultural productivity. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 3(3):555613.
  12. Imran, Asad AK (2015) Phenological characteristics of Brassica Napus L. as influenced by biochar application and shoot cutting duration (days). Civi Environ Res. ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Google Scholar
  13. Imran, Khan AA (2017) Canola yield And quality enhanced with Sulphur fertilization. Russ Agricult Sci 43:113. Scholar
  14. Imran, Asad AK, Fayaz A (2015a) Phenology of various rice genotypes as affected by different transplanting dates under cold climatic region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. J Environ E. Science ISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948Google Scholar
  15. Imran, Asad AK, Inamullah, Luqman (2015b) Weeding stages and their effect on yield and yield components of rice in upper Swat, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res 21(4):555–563Google Scholar
  16. Imran, Inayat K, Izaz H, Rehman A, Anwar S, Ahmad F, Khan AA, Zada H (2015c) Growth and yield of maize hybrids as effected by different sowing dates in Swat Pakistan. J Pure Appl Biol 4:4Google Scholar
  17. Imran, Inayat K, Izaz H, Rehman A, Anwar S, Ahmad F, Shah ST (2015d) Roots nodulation, yield and yield contributing parameters of mungbean cultivars as influenced by different phosphorous level in swat-Pakistan. J Pure Appl Biol 4(4)Google Scholar
  18. Imran, Asad AK, Inamullah, Ahmad F (2016a) Yield and yield attributes of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars as affected by phosphorous levels under different tillage systems. Cogen Food Agric 2:1151982Google Scholar
  19. Imran, Asad AK, Khan IU, Shahida N (2016b) Weeds density and late sown maize productivity influenced by compost application and seed rates under temperate environment. Pak J Weed Sci Res 22(1):169–181Google Scholar
  20. Imran, Abdul B, Roshan A, Naeem A, Akhtar A, Fayaz A, Inayatullah K, Shahida N (2017a) Traditional Rice farming accelerate CH4 & N2O emissions functioning as a stronger contributors of climate change. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res.
  21. Imran, Nasar J, Ashfaq A, Asad AK (2017b) Grain yield, yield attributes of wheat and soil Physio-chemical characteristics influenced by biochar, compost and inorganic fertilizer application. Agri Res Tech: Open Access J.
  22. Iqbal BA, Inam U, Imran, Asad AK, Shazma A, Asad A, Khurrum S, Shehryar K (2016) Effect of phosphorus, Sulphur and different irrigation levels on phenological traits of Triticale. Pure Appl Biol 5(2):303–310. Scholar
  23. Khan AZ, Imran, Asim M, Aiman K, Hasina G, Habib A, Said W (2016) Impact of fertilizer priming on seed germination behavior and vigor of maize. Pure Appl Biol 5(4):744–751. Scholar
  24. Lal R (2001) Potential of desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Clim Chang 51(1):35–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lockwood J (2012) Atmospheric moisture. In: Holden J (ed) An introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment. Pearson, Harlow. 875pGoogle Scholar
  26. Marengo J (2006) On the hydrological cycle of the Amazon Basin: a historical review and current state of the art. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 21(3):1–19Google Scholar
  27. Naveed, Muhammad I, Inayat K, Imtiaz K, Imran, Muhammad IK, Haroon K (2016) Anthelmintic, Antilice, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential of Ethanolic extracts of two wild medicinal plants Iphiona Grantioides and Pluchea arguta. J Woulfenia 23(11):13–25Google Scholar
  28. Samreen U, Ibrar M, Lalbadshah, Shahida N, Imran, Khatak I (2016) Ethnobotanical study of subtropical hills of Darazinda, Takht-e-Suleman range F.R D.I. Khan, Pakistan. Pure Appl Biol 5(1):149–164. Scholar
  29. Shaw EM, Beven KJ, Chappell N, Lamb R (2010) Hydrology in practice. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Trenberth KE, Smith L, Qian T, Dai A, Fasullo J (2007) Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. J Hydrometeorol 8:58–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Imran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amanullah
    • 1
  • Abdul Bari
    • 2
  • Hamayoon Khan
    • 3
  • Roshan Ali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyThe University of AgriculturePeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Agriculture Research InstituteMingoraPakistan
  3. 3.Director Climate Change Centre (CCC)The University of AgriculturePeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations