Advertisement

Seed Production Technologies of Some Major Field Crops

  • Irfan AfzalEmail author
  • Rubab Shabir
  • Saeed Rauf
Chapter

Abstract

A seed is an agricultural commodity that is raised and harvested under optimum conditions and processed with state-of-the-art technologies to maximize its viability and subsequent crop productivity. The seed is the basic ingredient of successful crop production which guarantees the highest yield potential of any crop variety. The use of good-quality seed under high productive systems can increase yields by 5–20%.Every stage of seed production from field selection to harvesting and then processing to seed storage is crucial for the quality management of seed. Seed quality is dictated by its germination and physical (inert matter, chaff, dirt and soil particles) and biological contaminations (presence of weed and other crop seeds, seed-borne diseases and insects). The seed production system of major field crops varies with the mode of reproduction and pollination system, which affects their genetic stability. Agronomic crops are mostly produced through seeds. Pure lines are developed with basic methods of creating variation, selection and stabilization. Single-cross hybrids are not only common in field crops such as maize and sunflower but also an adapted technology in vegetable and floriculture seed production. The pure seed of self-pollinated species, at the same time synthetics and composite seed of cross-pollinated species, is produced under standardized conditions recommended by seed certification department and dictated by the mode of pollination. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used for the production of doubled haploids to achieve homozygosity for rapid filial generation advancement. In planta and in vitro transformation methods are gaining popularity for the production of GMOs. This chapter will provide a comprehensive overview of various production technologies of seed production, production of GMOs, hybrid production methods and various management practices of seed production of agronomic crops in detail.

Keywords

Agronomic crops Seed production technology Breeding strategies Crop productivity 

Abbreviations

AOSCA

Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies (AOSCA)

CMS

System of cytoplasmic male sterility

DUS

Distinctness, uniformity and stability:

GMO

Genetically modified organisms;

MS

Male sterility

OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPVs

Open pollinated varieties

VCU

Value for cultivation and use

References

  1. Abdullah SNA, Hakeem KR, Akhtar MS (2016) Plant, soil and microbes: volume 1: implications in crop science. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman JD (2000) Abiotic pollen and pollination: ecological, functional, and evolutionary perspectives. In: Pollen and pollination. Springer, Vienna, pp 167–185Google Scholar
  3. Acquaah G (2009) Principles of plant genetics and breeding. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Adhikari J (2014) Seed sovereignty: Analysing the debate on hybrid seeds and GMOs and bringing about sustainability in agricultural development. J For Livelihood 12(1):33–46Google Scholar
  5. Afzal I, Rehman H, Naveed M, Basra SMA (2016) Recent advances in seed enhancements. In: Araujo S, Balestrazzi A (eds) New challenges in seed biology-basic and translational research driving seed technology. InTech publishing LtdGoogle Scholar
  6. Afzal I, Bakhtavar MA, Ashfaq M, Sagheer M, Baributsa D (2017) Maintenance of seed dryness during storage contributes to higher quality of maize seeds. J Stored Prod Res 72:49–53Google Scholar
  7. Agrawal PK (2014) Principles of seed technology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Allard RW, Allard RW (1999) Principles of plant breeding. In: Breeding of clonally propagated plants. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Arias-Jiménez EJ (2002) Date palm cultivation. In: Land preparation, operation and fertilization requirements (no. 156). FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Atilaw A, Alemu D, Bishaw Z, Kifle T, Kaske K (2016) Early generation seed production and supply in Ethiopia: status, challenges and opportunities. Ethiopian J Agric Sci 27(1):99–119Google Scholar
  11. Balalic I, Marjanovic-Jeromela A, Crnobarac J, Terzic S, Radic V, Miklic V, Jovicic D (2017) Variabilty of oil and protein content in rapeseed cultivars affected by seeding date. Emirates J Food Agric:404–410Google Scholar
  12. Barrows EM (2000) Animal behavior desk reference: a dictionary of animal behavior, ecology, and evolution. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhojwani SS, Razdan MK (1986) Plant tissue culture: theory and practice, vol 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 483–536Google Scholar
  14. Bourne MC (1977) Post-harvest food losses - the neglected dimension in increasing the world food supply, Cornell University International Agriculture Mimeograph no. 53. Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  15. Breseghello F, Coelho ASG (2013) Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agric FoodC hem 61(35):8277–8286Google Scholar
  16. Ceccarelli S (1986) Problems of seed production in forage crops. In: Srivastava JP, Simarski LT (eds) International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, AleppoGoogle Scholar
  17. Chahal GS, Gosal SS (2002) Principles and procedures of plant breeding: biotechnological and conventional approaches. In: Synthetic and composite varieties. Alpha Science Int’l LtdGoogle Scholar
  18. Clulow SA, McNicoll J, Bradshaw JE (1995) Producing commercially attractive, uniform true potato seed progenies: the influence of breeding scheme and parental genotype. Theor Appl Genet 90(3–4):519–525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Colley M (2010) Selection and Roguing in organic seed production. Retrieved from https://archive.is/20130414163617/http://www.extension.org/article/18447/printGoogle Scholar
  20. Cram M, Fraedrich S (2010) Seed diseases and seed borne pathogens of North America. Tree Planters’ Notes 53(2):35–44Google Scholar
  21. Dimante I, Gaile Z (2014) Potato minitubers technology–its development and diversity: a review. Res Rural Develop 1:69–76Google Scholar
  22. Egli DB, TeKrony DM, Spears JF (2005) High temperature stress and soybean seed quality: stage of seed development. Seed Technol 34:22–29Google Scholar
  23. Elsanhoty RM (2013) Genetically modified roundup ready soybean in processed meat products in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ann Agric Sci 58(2):231–237Google Scholar
  24. Ferguson JM, Keys RD, McLaughlin FW, Warren JM (1991) Seed and seed quality. Retrieved from https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/seed-and-seed-qualityGoogle Scholar
  25. Finch-Savage WE, Bassel GW (2015) Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation. J Exp Bot 67(3):567–591PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Food and Agriculture (FAO) (2003) On-farm trials for adapting and adopting good agricultural practices. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5146e/y5146e00.htmGoogle Scholar
  27. Fritz RS, Simms EL (1992) Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaitonde V (2017) Hybrid seed production technology in maize.  https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.32452.22402
  29. Gaskin J, Wilson M (2009) Nutrient Management, June 12.. Retrieved from http://soilquality.org/practices/nutrient_management.html
  30. Gibson DJ, Young BG, Wood AJ (2017) Can weeds enhance profitability? Integrating ecological concepts to address crop-weed competition and yield quality. J Ecol 105(4):900–904Google Scholar
  31. Glaz B, Miller JD, Deren CW, Tai PYP, Comstock J (2000) Registration of CP 89-2143’Sugarcane. Crop Sci 40(2):577–577Google Scholar
  32. Guo-tong TAO, Jing-lei WANG, Ji-qin NAN, Yang GAO, Zhi-fang CHEN, Ni SONG (2014) Calculating method for crop water requirement based on air temperature. Ying yong Sheng tai Xue bao 25:7Google Scholar
  33. Hirata M (2011) Forage crop production. The role of food, agriculture, forestry and fisheries in human nutrition, vol 1. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Oxford, pp 181–202Google Scholar
  34. James C (2015) 20th anniversary (1996 to 2015) of the global commercialization of biotech crops and biotech crop highlights in 2015. Brief 51. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Johannsen W (1903) On heredity in populations and in pure lines. Gustav Fischer Verl, Jena. Retrieved https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/14509092.pdf
  36. Kruft D (2010) Impacts of genetically-modified crops and seeds on farmers. Legal Res 100(97):2–15Google Scholar
  37. Kumar D, Kalita P (2017) Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries. Foods 6(1):8Google Scholar
  38. Lamkey K (2004) Seed production in corn and soybean. Agron Rep 4. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/agron_reports/4
  39. Lane A, Jarvis A (2007) Changes in climate will modify the geography of crop suitability: agriculture biodiversity can help with adaptation. SAT eJ 4:1–12Google Scholar
  40. Lather DV (2017) Variety maintenance & seed production in pulses. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/lather/variety-maintenance-seed-production-in-pulsesGoogle Scholar
  41. Malhotra SK, Vashishtha BB (2007) Seed certification standards for seed spices crops. In: Malhotra SK, Vashishtha BB (eds) Production, development, quality and export of seed spices. NRCSS, Ajmer, pp 84–92Google Scholar
  42. Mancini V, Romanazzi G (2014) Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops. Pest Manag Sci 70(6):860–868PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. McGuire S, Sperling L (2011) The link between food security and seed security: the facts and fictions that guide response. Dev Pract 21:493–508Google Scholar
  44. Miller JD, Tai PYP, Glaz B, Dean JL, Kang MS (1984) Registration of CP 72-2086 sugarcane. Crop Sci 24(1):210.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mrema GC, Gumbe LO, Chepete HJ, Agullo JO (2012) Chapter 12: grain crop drying, handling and storage. In: Rural structures in the tropics: design and development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  46. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pandey S (2009) In: Proceedings of the second world seed conference, 2009. Responding to the challenges of a changing world: the role of new plant varieties and high quality seed in agriculture. FAO, Rome, September 8–10. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, pp 239–241Google Scholar
  48. Pedersen JR (1992) Insects: identification, damage, and detection,. pp. 435Ð489. In: Sauer DB (ed) Storage of cereal grains and their products, 4th edn. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  49. Poehlman JM (1987) Breeding field crops. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Schafleitner R, Rosales ROG, Gaudin A, Aliaga CAA, Martinez GN, Marca LRT, Bonierbale M (2007) Capturing candidate drought tolerance traits in two native Andean potato clones by transcription profiling of field grown plants under water stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 45(9):673–690PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Singh RP, Prasad PVV, Reddy KR (2015) Climate change: implications for stakeholders in genetic resources and seed sector. Adv Agron 129:117–180Google Scholar
  52. Suma N, Srimathi P, Sumathi S (2014) Influence of size grading on seed and seedling quality characteristics of Sesamumindicum. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3(6):486–490Google Scholar
  53. Tai PYP, Shine JM, Deren JCW, Glaz B, Miller JD, Comstock JC (1997) Registration of ‘CP 88-1762’ sugarcane. Crop Sci 37:1388Google Scholar
  54. Tamaki H, Yoshizawa A, Fujii H, Sato K (2007) Modified synthetic varieties: a breeding method for forage crops to exploit specific combining ability. Plant Breed 126(1):95–100Google Scholar
  55. Tay D (2002) Vegetable hybrid seed production. Proceedings of the International Seed Seminar: Trade Production and Technology in Santiago, Chile, pp 128–139Google Scholar
  56. Thapa M (2013) Regulatory framework of GMOs and hybrid seeds in Nepal. Agron J Nepal 3:128–137Google Scholar
  57. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Framer’s Training Manual on Post Harvest Management of Sorghum, Groundnut and Rice. Retrieved on https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/hunger-foodsecurity-nutrition/document/unido-post-harvest-management-training-manual-farmers-0
  58. Tripathi SM, Singh KP (2013) Hybrid seed production in Helianthus annuus L. through male sterility induced by Benzotriazole. 2:645. doi: https://doi.org/10.4172/scientificreports.645
  59. Turner M (2017) A review of variety release procedures and related issues with recommendations for good practice. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Beirut. Retrieved_http://repo.mel.cgiar.org/handle/20.500.11766/6362?show=full
  60. Welbaum DG (2005) Vegetable seed production. Genetic Engineering. Department of Horticulture, Virginia Tech. Retrieved from https://www.hort.vt.edu/Welbaum/seedproduction/geneticeng.html
  61. Whitty EB, Chambliss CG (1992) Harvesting and storage of agronomic crops. IFAS.SS-AGR-151Google Scholar
  62. Wych RD (1988) Production of hybrid seed corn. Corn and corn improvement, vol 18. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 565–607Google Scholar
  63. Yan G, Liu H, Wang H, Lu Z, Wang Y, Mullan D, Liu C (2017) Accelerated generation of selfed pure line plants for gene identification and crop breeding. Front Plant Sci 8:1786PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Yousaf Z, Saleh N, Ramazan A, Aftab A (2016) Postharvesting techniques and maintenance of seed quality. In: New challenges in seed biology-basic and translational research driving seed technology. InTechGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Seed Physiology Lab, Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

Personalised recommendations