Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective, convenient, and economical modality for patients with renal failure, and its characteristic is that the treatment of PD can be done at home. PD utilizes the peritoneum as a biological dialysis membrane to remove metabolites from the body to the peritoneal cavity and to correct the abnormality of the fluid and electrolyte by diffusion and ultrafiltration simultaneously. The main components of PD system include peritoneal and abdominal cavity, dialysate, peritoneal catheter, and connecting devices. In this chapter, we mainly introduce the principles of PD, indications and contraindications for PD, PD modalities, evaluation methods of PD, and its applications and complications.
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