Immune Deficiency and Infection in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been recognized to be associated with immune deficiency. CKD-associated immune deficiency is orchestrated by the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. Immune deficiency could lead to graft dysfunction and impaired response to vaccination. Owing to the immune deficiency of CKD patients, opportunistic infections such as fungal, Pneumocystis jiroveci, and virus are more common in patients with CKD than in the general population. The high mortality risk of patients with CKD has been partly attributed to the infected diseases. Interventions targeting the immune dysfunction and infection can improve the outcomes of CKD.
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