Macro-Level Methodologies to Assess Grid Impacts and Flexibility from Battery Electric Vehicles: Opportunities to Reform India’s Energy Sector

  • Girish GhatikarEmail author
  • Nikhil Parchure
  • Rupendra Bhatnagar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 580)


India’s plan for electric vehicle (EV) only sales by 2030, which translates to over 206 million EVs, represent energy and power system challenges. While facing intensified renewable integration and continued grid reliability issues, EVs’ new demand for power will invariably further strain the power grid. These challenges represent an opportunity for India’s goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity by 30–35% by 2030 relative to 2005 levels. The electrification of transportation sector represents opportunities for (1) new markets; (2) reduced oil imports; (3) reduced vehicular GHG emissions and air quality improvements, and (4) axiomatic new revenue to distressed electric grid distribution companies (DISCOM). Toward a strategic roadmap to unlock these opportunities, this study proposes macro-level methodologies to assess the grid impacts from EV charging and flexibility using the projections based on historical trends in vehicle sales and driving patterns. The results form the preliminary analysis show new annual revenue opportunities of at least $36 billion for DISCOMs, cost savings of $70 billion from oil imports, and grid impacts that can be mitigated by flexibility services. The policy-makers and grid operators can use the results to optimally plan and operate the energy and power needed for the EVs and develop spatially and temporally flexible EV charging infrastructure.


Electric vehicles Grid impacts Energy sector Demand response Revenue models Methodologies 



The authors acknowledge the support and review from the India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF) and Working Group 6, Flexibility and Electric Mobility, members.


  1. 1.
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), India’s intended nationally determined contribution: working towards climate justice. Available at:
  2. 2.
    National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020. Department of heavy industry, The Government of India. Available at:
  3. 3.
    The Economic Times (2016, Mar) India aims to become 100% e-vehicle nation by 2030: Minister Piyush Goyal. Available at:
  4. 4.
    Rai AA, Ghatikar BG, Seethapathy R, Pillai R (2017) Implementation plan for electrification of public transportation in Kolkata (India). Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, Oct 2017.
  5. 5.
    Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM). Automobile domestic sales trends. Accessible at:
  6. 6.
    India National Automotive Board (NAB), Indian Ministry for Heavy Industries. Available at:
  7. 7.
    Central Electricity Authority (CEA). All India installed capacity of power stations, Nov 2017. Available at:
  8. 8.
    Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), The Government of India. Available at:
  9. 9.
    International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Remap Renewable Energy Prospects for India, May 2017. Available at:
  10. 10.
    Ghatikar G, Parchure N, Pillai R (2017) Integration of multifarious electric vehicle charging infrastructure flexibility: applications in India. In: Proceedings of the 1st e-mobility power systems integration symposium, Berlin. Oct 2017Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghatikar G (2016) Decoding power systems’ integration for clean transportation and decarbonized electric grid. In: Proceedings of the ISGW 2016. New Delhi, India.
  12. 12.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Techno commercial assessment of deep electrification of passenger vehicles in India, May 2017. LBNL-1007121Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xcel Energy, Electric vehicle charging station: pilot evaluation report. May 2015Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Plugged in: how Americans charge their electric vehicles. 2015Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Government of India, Ministry of Power, All India power sector at a glance, power supply requirement 2016–17. Available at:
  16. 16.
    Scoffield D, Smart J (2015) Diversity patterns and coincidence of EV charging with utility systems loads. Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Feb 2015Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghatikar G, Ahuja A, Pillai R (2017) Battery electric vehicle global adoption practices & distribution grid impacts: preliminary case study for Delhi. In: Proceedings of the ISGW, Mar 2017Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghatikar G, Pillai R, Ahuja A (2016) Electric transportation: action plan for India. In: IEEE proceedings for sustainable green buildings and communities, Dec 2016.
  19. 19.
    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) (2015) Electric vehicle infrastructure and education program application; Before the public utilities commission of the state of California. Feb 2015Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Greentech Media (2017) BMW and PG&E prove electric vehicles can be a valuable grid resource, June 2017. Available at:
  21. 21.
    Ministry of Heavy Industries, GOI; Committee Report on Standardization of Public EV Chargers. Available at:

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Girish Ghatikar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikhil Parchure
    • 2
  • Rupendra Bhatnagar
    • 3
  1. 1.Electric Power Research InstitutePalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Octillion Power SystemsHaywardUSA
  3. 3.India Smart Grid ForumNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations