Advertisement

Health Management in Lobster Aquaculture

  • E. V. RadhakrishnanEmail author
  • Joe K. Kizhakudan
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses different diseases and pathogens that lobsters are susceptible to, in the wild and in rearing systems. Although reports of disease outbreaks in lobsters are scarce, there are several known organisms that cause pathogenicity in lobsters, particularly under stressful conditions. Lobsters held in captive conditions are more prone to attack by pathogens and parasites, with known susceptibility in the larval phase. Among the known diseases in lobsters are viral diseases like Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), bacterial diseases like Gaffkaemia, shell disease, Vibriosis, red-body disease, tail necrosis and Milky White Disease Syndrome and fungal infections like Oomycetes, Burnspot disease and Lagenidium disease. Also described in this chapter are dinoflagellate blood disease, paramoebiasis, infections caused by microsporidians and several other invertebrate parasites like copepods. Egg-bearing lobsters are also prone to predation by Carcinonemertean worms which feed on the eggs. Epibiont fouling and ciliate diseases are also a major concern in lobster holding systems. This chapter highlights some of the remedial and prophylactic measures to prevent lobster diseases and infestation that are commonly reported in holding systems.

Keywords

Pathogens Gaffkaemia Vibriosis Prophylactic measures 

References

  1. Alderman, D. J. (1973). Fungal infection of crawfish (Palinurus elephas) exoskeleton. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 61, 595–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bach, S. D., & Beardsley, G. L. (1976). A disease of the Florida spiny lobster. Sea Frontiers, 22, 52–53.Google Scholar
  3. Bartsch, I. (1979). Halacaridae (Acari) von der Atlantikküste Nordamerikas: Beschreibung der Arten. Mikrofauna Meeresbod, 79, 1–62.Google Scholar
  4. Bayer, R. C., Reno, P. W., & Lunt, M. W. (1983). Terramycin as a chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic agent against gaffkemia in the American lobster. Progressive Fish Culturist, 45, 167–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behringer, D. C., Butler, M. J., IV, & Stentiford, G. D. (2012). Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: Overview of DAO Special 6. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 100, 89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bland, J. A., & Brock, T. D. (1973). The marine bacterium Leucothrix mucor as an algal epiphyte. Marine Biology, 23, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Booth, J. D., & Kittaka, J. (2000). Spiny lobster grow out. In B. F. Phillips & J. Kittaka (Eds.), Spiny lobsters: Fisheries and culture (pp. 556–585). Oxford: Blackwell Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourne, D. G., Young, N., Webster, N., Payne, M., Salmon, M., Demel, S., & Hall, M. (2004). Microbial community dynamics in a larval aquaculture system of the tropical rock lobster, Panulirus ornatus. Aquaculture, 242, 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourne, D. G., Hoj, L., Webster, N., Payne, M., Skindersoe, M., Givskov, M., & Hall, M. (2007). Microbiological aspects of phyllosoma rearing of the ornate rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Aquaculture, 268, 274–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowers, R. L. (1968). Observations on the orientation and feeding behaviour of barnacles associated with lobsters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowman, T. E., & Kornicker, L. S. (1967). Two new crustaceans: The parasitic copepod Sphaeronellopsis monothrix (Choniostomatidae) and its myodocopid ostracod host Parasterope pollex (Cylindroleberidae) from the southern New England coast. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 123, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowser, P. R., & Rosemark, R. (1981). Mortalities of cultured lobsters, Homarus, associated with a moult death syndrome. Aquaculture, 23(1–4), 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brock, J. A., & Lightner, D. V. (1990). Diseases caused by microorganisms. In O. Kinne (Ed.), Diseases of marine animals, diseases of Crustacea (Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Vol. III, pp. 245–349). Hamburg.Google Scholar
  14. Browser, P. R., Rosemark, R., & Reiner, C. R. (1981). A preliminary report of vibriosis in cultured American lobsters, Homarus americanus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 37, 80–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campbell, A., Gibson, R., & Evans, L. H. (1989). A new species of Carcinomertes (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae) ectohabitant on Panulirus cygnus (Crustacea: Palinuridae) from Western Australia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 95, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castell, J. D., Boston, L. D., Conklin, D. E., & Baum, N. (1991). Nutritionally induced molt death syndrome in aquatic crustaceans: ii. The effect of B vitamin and manganese deficiencies in lobster (Homarus americanus). Crustaceans Nutrition Newsletter, 7, 108–114.Google Scholar
  17. Cheng, W., & Chen, J. C. (2000). Effects of pH, temperature and salinity on immune parameters of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 10, 387–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Couch, J. A. (1983). Diseases caused by protozoa. In A. J. Provenzano Jr. (Ed.), The biology of the crustacea, pathobiology (Vol. 6, pp. 79–111). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deblock, S., Williams, A., & Evans, L. H. (1991). Contribution a l’etude des Microphallidae Travassos 1920 (Trematoda). Description de Thulakiotrema genitale n. gen., n sp., metacercaire parasite de langoustes australiennes. Bulletin du Museum National d’histoire naturelle Paris, 12, 563–576.Google Scholar
  20. Defoirdt, T., Boon, N., Sorgeloos, P., Verstraete, W., & Bossier, P. (2007). Alternatives to antibiotics to control bacterial infections: Luminescent vibriosis in aquaculture as an example. Trends in Biotechnology, 25(10), 472–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dennis, D. M., & Munday, B. L. (1994). Microsporidiosis of palinurid lobsters from Australian waters. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 14, 16–18.Google Scholar
  22. Diggles, B. K. (2001). A mycosis of juvenile spiny rock lobster Jasus edwardsii (Hutton, 1875) caused by Haliphthoros sp., and possible methods of chemical control. Journal of Fish Diseases, 24, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diggles, B. K., Moss, G. A., Carson, J., & Anderson, C. (2000). Luminous vibriosis in rock lobster Jasus verreauxi (Decapoda: Palinuridae) phyllosoma larvae caused by infection with Vibrio harveyi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 43, 127–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dove, A. D. M., LoBue, C., Bowser, P., & Powell, M. (2004). Excretory calcinosis: A new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 58, 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dove, A., Allam, B., Powers, J. J., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2005). A prolonged thermal stress experiment on the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24, 761–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, L. H., Jones, J. B., & Brock, J. A. (2000). Diseases of spiny lobsters. In B. F. Phillips & J. Kittaka (Eds.), Spiny lobsters- fisheries and culture (pp. 586–600). Oxford: Blackwell Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fatihah, M., Hassan, M., Ihwan, M. Z., Wahab, W., & Ikhwanuddin, M. (2014). Parasites and ecto-symbiont of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus from Peninsular Malaysia. In Proceedings of International Fisheries Symposium, Surabaya, Indonesia (Vol. 4).Google Scholar
  28. Fernandez, R. (2002). Neuroendocrine control of vitellogenesis in the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758). PhD thesis, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India, p. 189.Google Scholar
  29. Fisher, W. S., Nilson, E. H., & Shelser, R. A. (1975). Effect of fungus Haliphthoros milfordensis on the juvenile stages of the American lobster Homarus americanus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 26, 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisher, W. S., Nilson, E. H., Follett, L. F., & Shelser, R. A. (1976a). Hatching and rearing lobster larvae (Homarus americanus) in a disease situation. Aquaculture, 7, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher, W. S., Rosemark, R., & Nilson, E. H. (1976b). The susceptibility of cultured American lobsters to a chitinolytic bacterium. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 7, 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher, W. S., Nilson, E. H., Steenbergen, J. F., & Lightner, D. V. (1978). Microbial diseases of cultured lobsters: A review. Aquaculture, 14, 115–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flegel, T. W. (1997). Major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 13, 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Getchell, R. G. (1989). Bacterial shell disease in crustaceans: A review. Journal of Shellfish Research, 8, 1–6.Google Scholar
  35. Handlinger, J., Carson, J., Ritar, A. J., Crear, B. J., Taylor, D. P., & Johnston, D. (1999). Disease conditions of cultured phyllosoma larvae and juveniles of the southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii, Decapoda; Palinuridae). In L. H. Evans & J. B. Jones (Eds.), Proceedings, international symposium on lobster health management, 19–21 September, 1999, Adelaide, Curtin University of Technology (pp. 75–87).Google Scholar
  36. Hearing, V., & Vernick, S. H. (1967). Fine structure of the blood cells of the lobster Homarus americanus. Chesapeake Science, 8, 170–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hose, J. E., Martin, G. G., & Gerard, A. S. (1990). A decapod hemocyte classification scheme integrating morphology, cytochemistry and function. The Biological Bulletin, 178, 33–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jawahar, A., Kaleemur, R., & Leema, J. (1996). Bacterial disease in cultured spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus). Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 11, 187–192.Google Scholar
  39. Jeffries, W. B., Voris, H. K., & Yang, C. M. (1982). Diversity and distribution of the pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis in the seas adjacent to Singapore. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 2, 562–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johansson, M., Keyser, W., Sritunyalucksana, P., & Soderhall, K. (2000). Crustacean hemocytes and haematopoiesis. Aquaculture, 191, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson, P. T. (1983). Diseases caused by viruses, rickettsiae, bacteria, and fungi. In A. J. Provenzano Jr. (Ed.), The biology of crustacea, pathology (Vol. 6, pp. 1–78). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, P. W., Sieburth, J. M., Sastry, A., Arnold, C. R., & Doty, M. S. (1971). Leucothrix mucor infestation of benthic crustacean, fish eggs, and tropical algae. Limnology and Oceanography, 16, 962–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jones, C. M. (2015). Summary of disease status affecting tropical spiny lobster aquaculture in Vietnam and Indonesia. In C. M. Jones (Ed.), Spiny lobster aquaculture development in Indonesia, Vietnam and Australia. Proceedings of the International lobster aquaculture symposium held in Lombok, Indonesia, 22–25 April, 2014, ACIAR Proceedings, No. 145 (pp. 111–113). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  44. Jussila, J., Jago, J., Tsvetnenko, E., Dunstan, B., & Evans, L. H. (1997). Total and differential haemocyte counts in western rock lobsters (Panulirus cygnus George) under post-harvest stress. Marine and Freshwater Research, 48, 863–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karunasagar, I., Otta, S. K., & Karunasagar, I. (1996). Effect of chlorination on shrimp pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. World Aquaculture ‘96, book of abstracts (p. 193). Baton Rouge: The World Aquaculture Society.Google Scholar
  46. Keith, I. R., Paterson, W. D., Airdrie, D., & Boston, L. D. (1992). Defense mechanisms of the American lobster (Homarus americanus): Vaccination provided protection against gaffkemia infections in laboratory and field trials. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 2, 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kitancharoen, N., & Hatoi, K. (1995). A marine oomycete Atkinsiella panulirata sp. nov. from phyllosoma of spiny lobster, Panulirus japonicus. Myoscience, 36, 97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kittaka, J. (1997). Culture of larval spiny lobsters: A review of work done in northern Japan. Marine and Freshwater Research, 48, 923–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kizhakudan, J. K., Krishnamoorthi, S., Jasper, B., Xavier, V. J., Sundar, R., & Manibal, C. (2014). Incidence of egg predators and epibionts in lobsters. In P. U. Zacharia, P. Kaladharan, M. Varghese, N. K. Sanil, J. Rekha J. Nair and N. Aswathy (Eds.), Marine Ecosystems Challenges and Opportunities (MECOS 2), book of abstracts. Marine Biological Association of India, December 2–5, 2014, Kochi (pp. 97–98).Google Scholar
  50. Kuris, A. M., Blau, S. F., Paul, A. J., Shields, J. D., & Wickham, D. E. (1991). Infestation by brood symbionts and their impact on egg mortality in the red king crab, Paralithoides camtschatica, in Alaska: A geographic and temporal variation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48, 559–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lavallee, D., Hammell, K. L., Spangler, E. S., & Cawthorn, R. J. (2001). Estimated prevalence of Aerococcus viridans and Anophryoides haemophilia in American lobsters Homarus americanus freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 46, 231–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Baticados, C. L., Cruz-Lacierda, E. R., & de la Pena, L. (1990). Occurrence of luminous bacteria disease of Penaeus monodon larvae in the Philippines. Aquaculture, 91, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Albright, L. J., Paner, M. G., & Sunaz, N. A. (1992). Studies on the sources of luminescent Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus monodon hatcheries. In M. Shariff, R. P. Subasinghe, & J. R. Authur (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture 1 (pp. 157–164). Manila: Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  54. Le Moullac, G., & Haffner, P. (2000). Environmental factors affecting immune responses in crustaceans. Aquaculture, 191, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leslie, V. A., Margaret, M. R., & Balasingh, A. (2013). Rapid identification of Vibrio harveyi isolates from Panulirus homarus. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2(3), 6–10.Google Scholar
  56. Lightner, D. V., & Fontaine, C. T. (1975). A mycosis of the American lobster Homarus americanus, caused by Fusarium sp. J. Invetebr. Pathol., 25, 239–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lightner, D. V., & Redman, R. M. (1998). Strategies for the control of viral diseases of shrimp in the Americas. Fish Pathologists, 33, 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lightner, D. V., Pantoja, C. P., Redman, R. M., Poulos, B. T., Nguyen, H. D., Do, T. H., & Nguyen, T. C. (2008). Collaboration on milky disease of net-pen-reared spiny lobsters in Vietnam. OIE Bulletin, 2, 46–47.Google Scholar
  59. Lorenzon, S., Francese, M., Smith, V. J., & Ferrero, E. A. (2001). Heavy metals affect the circulating haemocyte number in the shrimp Palaemon elegans. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 11, 459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Musthaq, S. S., Sudhakaran, R., Balasubramanian, G., & Shahul Hameed, S. (2006). Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 93, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Newell, I. M. (1956). A parasitic species of Copidognathus (Acari: Halacaridae), P. Hawaii. Entomological Society, 16, 122–125.Google Scholar
  62. Newman, W. A. (1960). Octolasmis californiana, spec. nov., a pedunculate barnacle from the gills of the California spiny lobster. Veliger, 3, 9–11.Google Scholar
  63. Nilson, E. H., Fisher, W. S., & Shelser, R. A. (1975). Filamentous infestations on eggs and larvae of cultured crustaceans. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society, 6, 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Noga, E. J., Engel, D. P., Arroll, T. W., McKenna, S., & Davidian, M. (1994). Low serum antibacterial activity coincides with increased prevalence of shell disease in blue crabs Callinectes sapidus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 19, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Overstreet, R. M. (1983). Metazoan symbionts of crustaceans. In A. J. Provenzano Jr. (Ed.), The biology of the crustacea, pathobiology (Vol. 6, pp. 156–250). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Owens, L., & Glazebrook, J. S. (1988). Microsporidiosis in prawns from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 39, 301–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Payne, M. S., Hall, M. R., Sly, L., & Mourne, D. G. (2007). Microbial diversity within early-stage cultured Panulirus ornatus phyllosomas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 1940–1951.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paynter, J. L. (1989). Invertebrates in aquaculture. Refresher course for veterinarians, Proceedings 117. The University of Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  69. Pillai, N. K. (1962). Choniomyzon gen. nov. (Copepoda: Choniostomatidae) associated with Panulirus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 4, 95–99.Google Scholar
  70. Radhakrishnan, E. V., Chakraborty, R. D., Thangaraja, R., & Unnikrishnan, C. (2009). Effect of Nannochloropsis salina on the survival and growth of phyllosoma of the tropical spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus L. under laboratory conditions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 51(1), 52–60.Google Scholar
  71. Rajendran, K. V., Vijayan, K. K., Santiago, T. C., & Krol, R. M. (1999). Experimental host range and histopathology of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection on shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters from India. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22, 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reuter, R. E., Geddes, M. C., Evans, L. H., & Bryars, S. R. (1999). Tail disease in southern rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). In L. H. Evans & J. B. Jones (Eds.), Proceedings, international symposium on lobster health management, 19–21 September, 1999 (pp. 88–91). Adelaide: Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
  73. Robohm, R. A., Draxler, A. F. J., Wieczorek, D., Diane Kapareiko, D., & Pitchford, S. (2005). Effects of environmental stressors on disease susceptibility in American lobsters: A controlled laboratory study. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24, 773–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosen, B. (1970). Shell disease of aquatic crustaceans. In S. F. Snieszko (Ed.), A symposium on diseases of fishes and shellfishes. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 5 (pp. 409–415).Google Scholar
  75. Sadusky, T. J., & Bullis, R. A. (1994). Experimental disinfection of lobster eggs infected with Leucothrix mucor. The Biological Bulletin, 187, 254–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Samraj, Y. C. T., Jayagopal, P., & Kamalraj, K. (2010). Farming of spiny lobsters in onshore facility. Abstracts. In International conference on Recent Advances in Lobster Biology, Aquaculture and Management (RALBAM 2010), 5–8 January, 2010, Chennai, India (p. 69).Google Scholar
  77. Schapiro, H. C., Mathewson, J. H., Steenbergen, J. F., Kellog, S., Ingram, C., Nierengarten, G., & Rabin, H. (1974). Gaffkemia in the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus: Infection and immunization. Aquaculture, 3, 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schuwerack, P. M., Lewis, J. W., & Jones, P. W. (2001). Pathological and physiological changes in the south African freshwater crab Potamonautes warreni Calman induced by microbial gill infections. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 77, 269–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shields, J. D. (2011). Diseases of spiny lobsters: A review. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 106, 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shields, J. D., & Behringer, D. C., Jr. (2004). A new pathogenic virus in the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus from the Florida keys. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 59, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shields, J. D., & Kuris, A. M. (1990). Carcinonemertes wickhami n. sp. (Nemertea), an egg predator on the California lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Fishery Bulletin, 88, 279–287.Google Scholar
  82. Shields, J. D., & Overstreet, R. M. (2007). Parasites, symbionts, and diseases. In V. Kennedy (Ed.), The biology and management of the blue crab (pp. 299–417). University of Maryland Sea Grant Press.Google Scholar
  83. Shields, J. D., Stephens, F. J., & Jones, J. B. (2006). Chapter 5: Pathogens, parasites and other symbionts. In B. F. Phillips (Ed.), Lobsters: Biology, management, aquaculture and fisheries (pp. 146–204). Chichester: Blackwell Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Simpson, L. A., Ambrosio, L. J., & Baeza, J. A. (2017). A new species of Carcinonemertes, Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae), an egg predator of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. PLOS ONE, 12(5), e0177021.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177021.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sindermann, C. J. (1990). Responses of shellfish to pathogens. In C. J. Sindermann (Ed.), Principal diseases of marine fish and shellfish, 2. Diseases of marine shellfish (2nd ed., pp. 247–300). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Soderhall, K. (1999). Editorial. Invertebrate immunity. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 23, 263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stephens, F., Fotedar, S., & Evans, L. (2003). Rock lobster health and diseases: A guide for the lobster industry (p. 28). Perth: Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
  88. Stewart, J. E. (1980). Diseases. In J. S. Cobb & B. F. Phillips (Eds.), The biology and management of lobsters (pp. 301–342). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stewart, J. E. (1984). Lobster diseases. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 37, 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stewart, J. E., & Arie, B. (1974). Effectiveness of vancomycin against gaffkemia, the bacterial disease of lobsters (genus Homarus). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31, 1873–1879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stewart, J. E., Cornick, J. W., & Spears, D. I. (1966). Incidence of Gaffkya homari in natural lobster (Homarus americanus) populations of the Atlantic region of Canada. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23, 1325–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Supamattaya, K., Hoffmann, R. W., Boonyaratpalin, S., & Kanchanaphum, P. (1998). Experimental transmissions of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to the sand crab Portunus pelagicus, mud crab Scylla serrata and krill Acetes sp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 32, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Teo, J. W. P., Suwanto, A., & Poh, C. L. (2000). Novel β-lactamase genes from two environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 44, 1309–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.44.5.1309-1314.2000.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Teo, J. W. P., Tan, T. M. C., & Poh, C. L. (2002). Genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance in Vibrio harveyi. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46, 1038–1045.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.46.4.1038-1045.2002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Thai, T. Q., Wille, M., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P., & Schryve, P. D. (2014). Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98(11), 5205–5215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thangaraja, R. (2011). Ecology, reproductive biology and hormonal control of reproduction in the female spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Ph D Thesis, Mangalore Biosciences University, India, pp. 172.Google Scholar
  97. Verghese, B. (2003). Some immunobiological aspects of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758). PhD thesis, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India, pp. 118.Google Scholar
  98. Verghese, B., Radhakrishnan, E. V., & Padhi, A. (2007). Effect of environmental parameters on immune response of the Indian spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23, 928–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verghese, B., Radhakrishnan, E. V., & Padhi, A. (2008). Effect of moulting, eyestalk ablation, starvation and transportation on the immune response of the Indian spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus. Aquaculture Research, 39, 1009–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vijayakumaran, M., & Radhakrishnan, E. V. (2003). Control of epibionts with chemical disinfectants in the phyllosoma larvae of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus). In I. S. Bright Singh, S. Pai, R. Philip, & A. Mohandas (Eds.), Aquaculture medicine, Centre for Fish Disease Diagnosis and Management, CUSAT, Kochi, India (pp. 69–72).Google Scholar
  101. Vijayan, K. K., Sharma, K., Kizhakudan, J. K., Sanil, N. K., Saleela, K. N., Alvandi, S. V., Margaret, M. R., & Radhakrishnan, E. V. (2010a). Gaffkemia (Red tail disease)- an emerging disease problem in lobster holding facilities in southern India. In Abstracts. International Conference on Recent Advances in Lobster Biology, Aquaculture and Management (RALBAM 2010), 5–8 January, 2010, Chennai, India (p. 61).Google Scholar
  102. Vijayan, K. K., Sanil, N. K., & Sharma, K. (2010b). Health management concepts in lobster mariculture. Abstracts. In International Conference on Recent Advances in Lobster Biology, Aquaculture and Management (RALBAM 2010), 5–8 January, 2010, Chennai, India (p. 41–45)Google Scholar
  103. Wada, S., Takayama, A., Hatai, K., Shima, Y., & Fushima, H. (1994). A pathological study on cardiac disease found in lobsters. Fisheries Science, 60, 129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wickham, D. E. (1979). Predation by Carcinonemertes errans on eggs of the Dungeness Crab, Cancer magister. Marine Biology, 55, 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wickham, D. E. (1986). Epizootic infestations by nemertean brood parasites on commercially important crustaceans. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 43, 2295–2302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research InstituteCochinIndia

Personalised recommendations