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Microbial Interventions in Soil and Plant Health for Improving Crop Efficiency

  • Dhiman Mukherjee
Chapter

Abstract

Realization of nutrient security and foodstuff demand as a whole is a significant aspect for the whole community of farming system. Microbes as unicellular organisms play a significant role in the whole soil–plant diverse agro-ecosystem. Bacteria, fungi and other microbial creatures have friendly symbiotic relationship with other well-developed organisms, some of which are equally helpful (mutualism), while others can harm the host life or develop relationships such as synergism and commensalism. Microbial intervention mainly encompasses the method of intervening natural process in soil or in crop rhizosphere by the microbial population there in the root, which is mostly helpful for the improvement of food materials accessibility as well as expansion and yield of plants. Effective soil inoculants attack and stay in the crop field with naturally occurring bacteria and confined stress situation in erratic state and to set up a well-matched interface by the host that includes biochemical association with the crop-resistant features. Various microbes in the soil system not only help in mineralization process but also help to make firm soil with good amount of organic substance akin to humus and other natural carbon-related complexes. This process is very much influenced by various climatic factors mainly temperature and wind, precipitation, etc. Under changing climate situation, nature of microbes is also being changed and develops very complex type of interactions, which become very difficult to understand. Genetically modified crops (mainly nonleguminous) form N2-accumulating competent nodules by Rhizobium, ensuing nitrogen accumulation by nitrogen fixation. The induction of nodules harbouring nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a result of complex interface between BNF microorganism and plant. It involves several sets of genes and signals from both partners in a coordinated expression. In totality, it may be possible that NSP1/NSP2, NF-YA and ERN1 work in association and are helpful to the plant systems. Various biofertilizers are capable of accumulating nitrogen from the atmosphere, assisting the right use of nutrients such as potassium and phosphorus from organic or natural fertilizers and earth stock, progressing drought tolerance, getting better crop health or boosting alkalinity resistance. Crop root notices microbes with pattern-recognition sensor, which attach microbial-linked molecular pattern and trigger a basal protection enough for expansion of various pathogenic bacteria. ‘Omics’ techniques facilitate the recognition of gene transcripts, proteins or metabolites and have been developed to give a more detailed account into the genes and function expressed in the crop microbiome. Microbial population in soil agro-ecosystem are affected by an accumulation of biotic and abiotic factors that lead to numerical and qualitative variations. Bioremediation is a universal suitable option mainly to eradicate ecological pollutants in a contaminated place. This method includes mainly bacteria and flora to rot, impound or take away soil pollutants, mainly chemical insecticides and synthetic chemicals. This is possible by a succession of complex metabolic exchanges, repeatedly linking numerous diverse organisms, and unwanted contaminants can be ruined down or removed.

Keywords

Agro-ecosystem Crop Climate change Disease Microbes 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhiman Mukherjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaKalyani, NadiaIndia

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