Advertisement

Pathways to Internationalization in Indian Higher Education: Reflections on Policy Options

  • Rashim Wadhwa
Chapter

Abstract

Higher education regime has experienced substantial transformation from the last couple of decades ranging from the adjustment in the domestic education sector to the internationalization. There is a demand all across the globe to reform the education system in general and higher education in particular to make it competitive all across the globe, and India is not an exception. Internationalization of Indian higher education is a top priority for Indian policymakers and education providers. Ample amount of initiatives has been taken by policymakers and education agencies to promote the internationalization of Indian higher education with the aim to position Indian higher education globally, but unfortunately, the situation is not satisfactory. The number of Indian institutions which represent the country at the global level is minuscule. In this context, this paper visits the drivers of internationalization of higher education and in the part that follows discusses the prevalent pathways to internationalization with a detailed analysis of student mobility. The paper also identifies and comprehends the prime concern of imbalanced student mobility leading towards revenue and human capital flow. The input provided through this study will provide implications to the Indian higher education system through which outbound mobility of students can be reduced. Different strategies have been proposed for increasing the inbound mobility of students.

Keywords

Internationalization Higher education Market Student mobility Pathways 

References

  1. Agarwal, P. (2010). Internationalization of Indian higher education. In R. Bhandari (Ed.), International India: A turning point in educational exchange with the U.S. (pp. 25–47). New York: IIE Publication.Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal, P. (2011). India’s growing influence in international student mobility. In R. Bhandari & P. Blumenthal (Eds.), International students and global mobility in higher education: National trends and new directions (pp. 147–178). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. AIU. (2017). Internationalisation of higher education in India: Annual survey of international students in India 2013–14. New Delhi: Association of Indian Universities.Google Scholar
  4. Altbach, P. G. (2008). The global market bubble. Retrieved from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=400584&sectioncode=26
  5. AUCC. (2014). Canada’s universities in the world: AUCC internationalization survey. Ottawa: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.Google Scholar
  6. Bhandari, R., & Blumenthal, P. (Eds.). (2011). International students and global mobility in higher education: National trends and new directions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Bhushan, S. (2006). Foreign education providers in India: Mapping the extent and regulation. London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.Google Scholar
  8. Bhushan, S. (2011). Overview of the Indian scenario. In A. Stella & S. Bhushan (Eds.), Quality assurance of transnational higher education: The experiences of Australia and India. New Delhi: NUEPA.Google Scholar
  9. Böhm, A., Davis, D., Meares, D., & Pearce, D. (2002). The global student mobility 2025 report: Forecasts of the global demand for international education. Canberra: IDP.Google Scholar
  10. British Council. (2014). Understanding India: The future of higher education and opportunities for international cooperation. Retrieved from http://www.britishcouncil.org/sitesbritishcouncil.uk2/files/understanding_india_report.pdfGoogle Scholar
  11. British Council. (2015). The Indian states: Opportunities for international higher education collaboration. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.in/sites/default/files/the_indian_states_-_oppurtunities_for_international_higher_education_collaboration.pdf
  12. Choudaha, R., Orosz, K., & Chang, L. (2012). Not all international students are the same: Understanding segments, mapping behavior. New York: World Education Services. Retrieved from http://www.wes.org/ras/downloads/NotAllInternationalStudentsAreTheSame.pdf on 01/01/2015.Google Scholar
  13. CII and AIU. (2014). Trends in internationalization of higher education in India. In Confederation of Indian industry and association of Indian universities (AIU).Google Scholar
  14. Cross-Border Education Research Team, C-BERT Branch Campus Listing. (2016). Data originally collected by Kevin Kinser and Jason E. Lane. Available: http://globalhighered.org/branchcampuses.php Albany, NY.
  15. De Wit, H. (2010). Global: Internationalization moves into a new phase. Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://www.universityworldnews.com/articlephp?story=20110916212548839
  16. Dhar, I., & Bhushan, S. (2008). Foreign education providers in India: Report on collaborative arrangements. Delhi: UK India Education Research Initiative (UKIERI).Google Scholar
  17. Dukkipati, U. (2010). Higher education in India: Sustaining long term growth. South Asia Monitor, 141(1). Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://csis.org/files/publication/sam_141.pdf
  18. Haigh, M. (2008). Internationalization, planetary citizenship and higher education Inc. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 38(4), 427–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. He, L. (2016). Transnational higher education institutions in China: A comparison of policy orientation and reality. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(1), 79095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khadria, B. (2009). India migration report 2009: Past, present and the future outlook. International migration and diaspora studies (IMDS) project. New Delhi: Jawaharlal Nehru University.Google Scholar
  21. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalisation remodeled: Definitions, rationales and approaches. Journal for Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knight, J. (2006). Internationalization: Concepts, complexities and challenges. In e. J. J. F. Forest & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International handbook of higher education (pp. 207–228). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knight, J. (2008). Higher education in turmoil: The changing world of internationalization. Rotterdam: The Netherlands Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knight, J. (2014). Changing landscape of crossborder higher education. In Trends in internationalization of higher education in India (pp. 7–17). New Delhi: CII and AIU Publication. Retrieved from http://www.ciiuic.in/pdf/Trends%20in%20Inter%20Higher%20Education.pdf on 18/03/ 2015.Google Scholar
  25. Lawton, W., & Kastsomitros, A. (2012). International branch campuses expanding, geopolitical landscape changing.Google Scholar
  26. Mazzarol, T., & Geoffrey, S. (2002). The International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mishra, A. (2012). Poor quality and too few seats push 60,000 students abroad. University World News, Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20120907132825451
  28. OECD. (2013). Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/eag2013%20(eng)%2D%2DFINAL%2020%20June%202013.pdf
  29. Pawar, S. (2016). Internationalization of higher education in India: Pathways and initiatives. IOSR Journal of Research and Method in Education, 6(3), 53–59.Google Scholar
  30. Pawar, S. K., & Deshmukh, U. M. (2013). Cross-border marketing of higher education. University News, 51(62), 1–5.Google Scholar
  31. Powar, K. B. (2014). International student mobility: The global scenario and Indian mobility trends. In Trends in internationalization of higher education in India (pp. 7–17). New Delhi: CII and AIU Publication.Google Scholar
  32. Powar, K. B. (2015). Changing landscape of international higher education: An Indian perspective. Pune: D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth.Google Scholar
  33. Qamar, F., & Bhalla, V. (2017). Internationalization of higher education in India: Annual survey of international students in India 2014–15 (Occasional paper (1)). New Delhi: AIU.Google Scholar
  34. Sanyal, B. C. & Michael, M. (2008). Financing higher education: International perspectives. Retrieved from http://upcommons.upc.edu/revistes/bitstream/2099/5942/7/2006- 01_eng_sanyal_martin.pdf on 11/04/2016.
  35. Sellgren, K. (2014, April 2). Decline of overseas students at England’s universities. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-26836962.
  36. Shen, W. (2005). A study on Chinese student migration in the United Kingdom (pp. 429–436). Retrieved October 12, 2009 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10308-005-0011-9#page-1
  37. Snehi, N. (2013). Student mobility at tertiary level in India: Status, prospects & challenges (NUEPA Occasional Paper No. 44). Delhi: National University of Educational Planning and Administration.Google Scholar
  38. Teter, W., & Martin, D. (2014). India: Mobility trends. International Higher Education, (74), 17–19.Google Scholar
  39. The Economic Times. (2015, March 13). Poor higher education forcing students abroad-study, issue no. 358. Retrieved from https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20150312215531638
  40. Toyoshima, M. (2007). International strategies of universities in England London. Review of Education, 5(3), 265–280.Google Scholar
  41. UNESCO. (2016). UNESCO statistics on education. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Available at: http://stats.us.unesco.org/unesco/ReportsFoldersasp
  42. Van der Wende, M. (2002). The role of US higher education in the global e-learning market. Retrieved from http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs/ROP.WendePaper1.02.pdf on 16/08/2014.
  43. Varghese, N. V. (2008). Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO.Google Scholar
  44. Wadhwa, R. (2010). A study on determinants of outward student mobility in higher education, India. Unpublished M. Phil dissertation. New Delhi: National University of Educational Planning and Administration.Google Scholar
  45. Wadhwa, R. (2012). Sustainability and changing facets of internationalization of higher education. Retrieved 19 October, 2014, from http://www.nafsa.org/Resource_Library_Assets/Networks/RS/Book_Reviews/Sustainability_and_Changing_Facets_of_Internationalization_of_Higher_Education
  46. Wadhwa, R. (2015). Outbound mobility and students’ decision making process: A case of India. In K. Bista et al. (Eds.), Global perspectives and local challenges surrounding international student mobility. IGI Global.Google Scholar
  47. Wadhwa, R. (2016a). Students on move: Understanding decision making process and destination choice of Indian students. Higher Education for the Future, 3(1), 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wadhwa, R. (2016b). New phase of internationalization of higher education and institutional change. Higher Education for the Future, 3(2), 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wadhwa, R. (2018a). Drivers of International Student Mobility; Theoretical context and empirical evidence from literature. In K. Bista et al. (Eds.), International student mobility and opportunities for growth in the global marketplace. IGI Global.Google Scholar
  50. Wadhwa, R. (2018b). Imbalanced student mobility in India: A serious concern (International Higher Education, Vol. 92), Boston College Center for International Higher Education.Google Scholar
  51. Wadhwa, R., & Jha, S. (2014). Internationalization of higher education: Implications for policy making. Higher Education for the Future, 1(1), 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolfeil, N. (2009). Student mobility from new to old member states in the European union—Changing patterns after 1st of May 2004?. CMR working paper No. 42/100, Retrieved January 12, 2010 from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/140826/1/618828966.pdf
  53. Yeravdekar, V. R., & Tiwari, G. (2016). Internationalization of higher education in India. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Zeleza, P. T. (2009). Internationalization in higher education: Opportunities and challenges for the knowledge project in the global south. Retreived from http://www.sarua.org/files/Internationalization%20of%20Higher%20Education%20Final%20Paper%20-%20Prof%20Paul%20Tiyambe%20Zeleza.pdf on 12/04/2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashim Wadhwa
    • 1
  1. 1.Central University of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations